• 1
    Britt H, Miller G, Charles J. General practice activity in Australia 2007-2008. Canberra (Australia): Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2008.
  • 2
    Deyo RA. Low-back pain. Sci Am 1998; 279: 4853.
  • 3
    Williams CM, Maher CG, Hancock MJ, McAuley JH, McLachlan AJ, Britt H, et al. Low back pain and best practice care: a survey of general practice physicians. Intern Med 2010; 170: 2717.
  • 4
    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Bleasel J, et al. Prognosis in patients with recent onset low back pain in Australian primary care: inception cohort study. BMJ 2008; 337: a171.
  • 5
    Costa Lda C, Maher CG, McAuley JH, Hancock MJ, Herbert RD, Refshauge KM, et al. Prognosis for patients with chronic low back pain: inception cohort study. BMJ 2009; 339: b3829.
  • 6
    Walker BF, Muller R, Gran WD. Low back pain in Australian adults: the economic burden. Asia Pac J Public Health 2003; 15: 7987.
  • 7
    Chou R, Huffman LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 492504.
  • 8
    Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara AV, Koes BW. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 76575.
  • 9
    Ferreira ML, Smeets RJ, Kamper SJ, Ferreira PH, Machado LA. Can we explain heterogeneity among randomized clinical trials of exercise for chronic back pain? A meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phys Ther 2010; 90: 1383403.
  • 10
    Hayden JA, van Tulder MW, Tomlinson G. Systematic review: strategies for using exercise therapy to improve outcomes in chronic low back pain. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142: 77685.
  • 11
    Logghe IH, Verhagen AP, Rademaker AC, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, van Rossum E, Faber MJ, et al. The effects of tai chi on fall prevention, fear of falling and balance in older people: a meta-analysis. Prev Med 2010; 51: 2227.
  • 12
    Hall A, Maher C, Latimer J, Ferreira M. The effectiveness of tai chi for chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 71724.
  • 13
    Johansson AC, Linton SJ, Bergkvist L, Nilsson O, Cornefjord M. Clinic-based training in comparison to home-based training after first-time lumbar disc surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Eur Spine J 2009; 18: 398409.
  • 14
    Bell JA, Burnett A. Exercise for the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of low back pain in the workplace: a systematic review. J Occup Rehabil 2009; 19: 824.
  • 15
    Arthritis Foundation tai chi program. URL:
  • 16
    Baillet A, Zeboulon N, Gossec L, Combescure C, Bodin LA, Juvin R, et al. Efficacy of cardiorespiratory aerobic exercise in rheumatoid arthritis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010; 62: 98492.
  • 17
    Fransen M, McConnell S, Bell M. Therapeutic exercise for people with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a systematic review. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 173745.
  • 18
    Hall AM, Maher CG, Latimer J, Ferreira ML, Lam P. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi for long-term low back pain (TAI CHI): study rationale, design, and methods. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2009; 10: 55.
  • 19
    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KA. A systematic review identifies five “red flags” to screen for vertebral fracture in patients with low back pain. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61: 1108.
  • 20
    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Screening for malignancy in low back pain patients: a systematic review. Eur Spine J 2007; 16: 16739.
  • 21
    Henschke N, Maher CG, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Bleasel J, et al. Prevalence of and screening for serious spinal pathology in patients presenting to primary care settings with acute low back pain. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 307280.
  • 22
    American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 7th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins; 1995.
  • 23
    Pengel LH, Refshauge KM, Maher CG. Responsiveness of pain, disability, and physical impairment outcomes in patients with low back pain. Spine 2004; 29: 87983.
  • 24
    Kamper SJ, Maher CG, Mackay G. Global rating of change scales: a review of strengths and weaknesses and considerations for design. J Man Manip Ther 2009; 17: 16370.
  • 25
    Ostelo RW, Deyo RA, Stratford P, Waddell G, Croft P, Von Korff M, et al. Interpreting change scores for pain and functional status in low back pain: towards international consensus regarding minimal important change. Spine 2008; 33: 904.
  • 26
    Costa LO, Maher CG, Latimer J, Hodges PW, Herbert RD, Refshauge KM, et al. Motor control exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phys Ther 2009; 89: 127586.
  • 27
    Ferreira ML, Ferreira PH, Latimer J, Herbert RD, Hodges PW, Jennings MD, et al. Comparison of general exercise, motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized trial. Pain 2007; 131: 317.
  • 28
    Hong Y, Li JX. Biomechanics of tai chi: a review. Sports Biomech 2007; 6: 45364.
  • 29
    Sherman KJ, Cherkin DC, Cook AJ, Hawkes RJ, Deyo RA, Wellman R, et al. Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial. Trials 2010; 11: 36.
  • 30
    Wayne PM, Kaptchuk TJ. Challenges inherent to t'ai chi research: part I. T'ai chi as a complex multicomponent intervention. J Altern Complement Med 2008; 14: 95102.
  • 31
    Moseley GL. Graded motor imagery for pathologic pain: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2006; 67: 212934.
  • 32
    Hall AM, Kamper SJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, Ferreira ML, Nicholas MK. Symptoms of depression and stress mediate the effect of pain on disability. Pain 2011; 152: 104451.
  • 33
    Wang C, Bannuru R, Ramel J, Kupelnick B, Scott T, Schmid CH. Tai chi on psychological well-being: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010; 10: 23.
  • 34
    Kamper SJ, Maher CG, Herbert RD, Hancock MJ, Hush JM, Smeets RJ. How little pain and disability do patients with low back pain have to experience to feel that they have recovered? Eur Spine J 2010; 19: 1495501.
  • 35
    Hush JM, Refshauge K, Sullivan G, De Souza L, Maher CG, McAuley JH. Recovery: what does this mean to patients with low back pain? Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 12431.
  • 36
    Kamper SJ, Stanton TR, Williams CM, Maher CG, Hush JM. How is recovery from low back pain measured? A systematic review of the literature. Eur Spine J 2011; 20: 918.