• 1
    Ward MM. Changes in the incidence of end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis, 1982–1995. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 313640.
  • 2
    Ward MM. Changes in the incidence of end stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis in the United States, 1996–2004. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 637.
  • 3
    Costenbader KH, Desai A, Alarcon GS, Hiraki LT, Shaykevich T, Brookhart MA, et al. Trends in the incidence, demographics, and outcomes of end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis in the US from 1995 to 2006. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 16818.
  • 4
    Dooley MA, Hogan S, Jennette C, Falk R. Cyclophosphamide therapy for lupus nephritis: poor renal survival in black Americans. Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network. Kidney Int 1997; 51: 118895.
  • 5
    Wallace DJ, Podell TE, Weiner JM, Cox MB, Klinenberg JR, Forouzesh S, et al. Lupus nephritis: experience with 230 patients in a private practice from 1950 to 1980. Am J Med 1982; 72: 20920.
  • 6
    Nossent HC, Swaak TJ, Berden JH. Systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of disease activity in 55 patients with end-stage renal failure treated with hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Dutch Working Party on SLE. Am J Med 1990; 89: 16974.
  • 7
    Huang JW, Hung KY, Yen CJ, Wu KD, Tsai TJ. Systemic lupus erythematosus and peritoneal dialysis: outcomes and infectious complications. Perit Dial Int 2001; 21: 1437.
  • 8
    Weng CH, Hsu CW, Yu CC, Yen TH, Yang CW, Hung CC. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: comparison of clinical outcomes. Kidney Blood Press Res 2009; 32: 4516.
  • 9
    Liang CC, Lin HH, Wang IK, Kuo HL, Liu JH, Yeh HC, et al. Influence of predialysis comorbidity and damage accrual on mortality in lupus patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. Lupus 2010; 19: 12108.
  • 10
    Siu YP, Leung KT, Tong MK, Kwan TH, Mok CC. Clinical outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 2797802.
  • 11
    Michel C, Courdavault L, al Khayat R, Viron B, Roux P, Mignon F. Fungal peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Am J Nephrol 1994; 14: 11320.
  • 12
    Lunde NM, Messana JM, Swartz RD. Unusual causes of peritonitis in patients undergoing continuous peritoneal dialysis with emphasis on Listeria monocytogenes. J Am Soc Nephrol 1992; 3: 10927.
  • 13
    Odama UO, Shih DJ, Korbet SM. Sclerosing peritonitis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a report of two cases. Perit Dial Int 1999; 19: 1604.
  • 14
    Goss JA, Cole BR, Jendrisak MD, McCullough CS, So SK, Windus DW, et al. Renal transplantation for systemic lupus erythematosus and recurrent lupus nephritis: a single-center experience and a review of the literature. Transplantation 1991; 52: 80510.
  • 15
    Nossent HC, Swaak TJ, Berden JH. Systemic lupus erythematosus after renal transplantation: patient and graft survival and disease activity. The Dutch Working Party on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 1838.
  • 16
    Moroni G, Tantardini F, Gallelli B, Quaglini S, Banfi G, Poli F, et al. The long-term prognosis of renal transplantation in patients with lupus nephritis. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 45: 90311.
  • 17
    Contreras G, Mattiazzi A, Guerra G, Ortega LM, Tozman EC, Li H, et al. Recurrence of lupus nephritis after kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 12007.
  • 18
    Myers OB, Adams C, Rohrscheib MR, Servilla KS, Miskulin D, Bedrick EJ, et al. Age, race, diabetes, blood pressure, and mortality among hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 19708.
  • 19
    Burkart J. The future of peritoneal dialysis in the United States: optimizing its use. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4 Suppl 1: S12531.
  • 20
    Rubin HR, Fink NE, Plantinga LC, Sadler JH, Kliger AS, Powe NR. Patient ratings of dialysis care with peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis. JAMA 2004; 291: 697703.
  • 21
    Juergensen E, Wuerth D, Finkelstein SH, Juergensen PH, Bekui A, Finkelstein FO. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: patients' assessment of their satisfaction with therapy and the impact of the therapy on their lives. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 11916.
  • 22
    Mendelssohn DC, Mullaney SR, Jung B, Blake PG, Mehta RL. What do American nephrologists think about dialysis modality selection? Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 229.
  • 23
    US Renal Data System. USRDS 2009 annual data report: atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2009.
  • 24
    Liem YS, Wong JB, Hunink MG, de Charro FT, Winkelmayer WC. Comparison of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis survival in The Netherlands. Kidney Int 2007; 71: 1538.
  • 25
    Mehrotra R, Blake P, Berman N, Nolph KD. An analysis of dialysis training in the United States and Canada. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 15260.
  • 26
    Winkelmayer WC, Glynn RJ, Mittleman MA, Levin R, Pliskin JS, Avorn J. Comparing mortality of elderly patients on hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a propensity score approach. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 235362.
  • 27
    Andrews PA, Warr KJ, Hicks JA, Cameron JS. Impaired outcome of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in immunosuppressed patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996; 11: 11048.
  • 28
    Goo YS, Park HC, Choi HY, Kim BS, Park YB, Lee SK, et al. The evolution of lupus activity among patients with end-stage renal disease secondary to lupus nephritis. Yonsei Med J 2004; 45: 199206.
  • 29
    Tang H, Chelamcharla M, Baird BC, Shihab FS, Koford JK, Goldfarb-Rumyantzev AS. Factors affecting kidney-transplant outcome in recipients with lupus nephritis. Clin Transplant 2008; 22: 26372.
  • 30
    Miemois-Foley J, Paunio M, Lyytikainen O, Salmela K. Bacteremia among kidney transplant recipients: a case-control study of risk factors and short-term outcomes. Scand J Infect Dis 2000; 32: 6973.
  • 31
    Wang V, Lee SY, Patel UD, Weiner BJ, Ricketts TC, Weinberger M. Geographic and temporal trends in peritoneal dialysis services in the United States between 1995 and 2003. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 55: 107987.
  • 32
    DeOreo PB. Finances of the independent dialysis facility. Blood Purif 2007; 25: 711.
  • 33
    US Department of Health and Human Services. End stage renal disease payment. 2010. URL:
  • 34
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Chapter 8, section 50.8 of the Medicare claims processing manual. 2010. URL:
  • 35
    Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act (MIPPA). 2008. Public law no. 110-275, code no. HR6331, section 153B, 110th Congress, July 15, 2008.
  • 36
    Winkelmayer WC, Chertow GM. The 2011 ESRD prospective payment system: an uncontrolled experiment. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 5426.
  • 37
    Ponticelli C, Moroni G. Renal transplantation in lupus nephritis. Lupus 2005; 14: 958.
  • 38
    Ashby VB, Kalbfleisch JD, Wolfe RA, Lin MJ, Port FK, Leichtman AB. Geographic variability in access to primary kidney transplantation in the United States, 1996–2005. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 141223.
  • 39
    Axelrod DA, Guidinger MK, Finlayson S, Schaubel DE, Goodman DC, Chobanian M, et al. Rates of solid-organ wait-listing, transplantation, and survival among residents of rural and urban areas. JAMA 2008; 299: 2027.
  • 40
    Cass A, Cunningham J, Snelling P, Ayanian JZ. Late referral to a nephrologist reduces access to renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 10439.
  • 41
    Roderick P, Jones C, Drey N, Blakeley S, Webster P, Goddard J, et al. Late referral for end-stage renal disease: a region-wide survey in the south west of England. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17: 12529.
  • 42
    Longenecker JC, Coresh J, Klag MJ, Levey AS, Martin AA, Fink NE, et al. Validation of comorbid conditions on the end-stage renal disease medical evidence report: the CHOICE study. Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 5209.
  • 43
    Layton JB, Hogan SL, Jennette CE, Kenderes B, Krisher J, Jennette JC, et al. Discrepancy between Medical Evidence Form 2728 and renal biopsy for glomerular diseases. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 204652.
  • 44
    Norris K, Nissenson AR. Race, gender, and socioeconomic disparities in CKD in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19: 126170.
  • 45
    Powe NR. To have and have not: health and health care disparities in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2003; 64: 76372.
  • 46
    Powe NR. Let's get serious about racial and ethnic disparities. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19: 12715.
  • 47
    Moroni G, Tantardini F, Ponticelli C. Renal replacement therapy in lupus nephritis. J Nephrol 2003; 16: 78791.
  • 48
    Hall YN, Choi AI, Xu P, O'Hare AM, Chertow GM. Racial ethnic differences in rates and determinants of deceased donor kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 74351.
  • 49
    Ayanian JZ, Cleary PD, Weissman JS, Epstein AM. The effect of patients' preferences on racial differences in access to renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 16619.