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INTRODUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES

Children with a rheumatic disease frequently experience impairments in one or more body systems; these may include pain, stiffness, fatigue, muscle weakness, soft tissue contractures, and poor exercise capacity. These impairments may directly limit the child's ability to perform some physical activities or may do so indirectly if the child or parent fears such activities may cause injury or a disease flare. It is essential to understand the impact of rheumatic disease on a child's activities in order to guide intervention and monitor changes in functional abilities over time and with targeted therapies. This is especially important when disease onset occurs at a very young age because the long-term effects of physical limitations can negatively impact the child's quality of life.

The best measure of activities for a particular child or group of children depends on the context of the evaluation, including the physical and social environment. For example, a child may perform a task like standing up from the floor without assistance in a quiet, standardized environment like the clinic, but does not perform the same task during physical education class at school or after a fall in the community. Holsbeeke et al (1) suggest there are 3 related but separate constructs of physical activity that are distinguished by this person-environment interaction. Capacity describes what a person can do in a standardized controlled environment, capability describes what a person can do in his/her daily environment, and performance describes what a person actually does in his/her daily environment.

Four measures of physical activities that have been developed for or are appropriate for use in children with a rheumatic disease will be reviewed. Only the Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Scale (JAFAS) and the Childhood Health Assessment questionnaire (C-HAQ) were developed specifically for children with juvenile arthritis. The C-HAQ, the most frequently used measure of activities in pediatric rheumatology, evaluates a child's capability to perform activities in their daily environment, while the JAFAS measures the child's capacity in the daily environment. Both the Activities Scale for Kids (ASK) and the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instruments (PODCI), although not specifically designed for use in pediatric rheumatic diseases, assess physical function in children with chronic health disorders, including childhood arthritis. The ASK includes 2 versions, one that measures a child's physical capability in his/her daily environment (ASKc) and one that measures the child's performance of the same activities in their daily environment (ASKp). The ASK is also the only measure that requires the child to be the respondent because, as Young et al (2) state, “it is the child who is most familiar with his or her own abilities or limitations in each setting.” Finally, the PODCI, the most comprehensive of the 4 instruments, measures capability primarily, and includes a pediatric version to be completed by a parent and an adolescent version that can be completed by the parent, child, or both. Each of these 4 measures includes activities that are necessary and important to children across a wide age range. The use of 2 or more of these measures in combination may provide clinicians with the best understanding of a child's typical activities and participation in age-appropriate settings.

CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES

Description

Purpose.

To assess health status and physical function in children with juvenile arthritis. The populations are children, ages 1–19 years with juvenile arthritis (3). It is also validated for use in children with juvenile dermatomyositis (4, 5) and systemic lupus erythematosus (6), and used for children with chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes (7), and spina bifida (8). The original publication was by Singh et al in 1994 (3). Lam et al (9) proposed several revised versions that included 8 additional items to assess the child's functional strengths as well as deficits.

Content.

Includes the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health components of body function (sensation of pain) and activities and participation (basic and instrumental activities of daily living [ADLs] considered to be important, and often difficult for children with arthritis), as well as a measure of overall health status. Revised versions contain 8 additional more physically challenging activities.

Number of items.

The disability index (DI) in the original C-HAQ includes 30 items grouped into 8 domains of physical function, dressing and grooming (4 items), arising (2 items), eating (3 items), walking (2 items), hygiene (5 items), reach (4 items), grip (5 items), and activities (5 items). The DI in revised versions (C-HAQ38) includes 8 additional, more physically-challenging items (9). The discomfort index (pain) and health status index (overall health status) each include a single item, a 15-cm visual analog scale (VAS).

Response options/scale.

The original C-HAQ DI is scored on a 4-point categorical scale that indicates how much difficulty a child has had performing each task during the past week (0 = without any difficulty, 1 = with some difficulty, 2 = with much difficulty, and 3 = unable to do). The respondent marks not applicable if the task is beyond the child's developmental age, and the respondent indicates if aids/devices or assistance were needed for any task.

Several revised versions ask respondents to compare the child's capabilities to other children the same age. The VASC-HAQ38 (9) uses a 10-cm VAS anchored at the left end with the phrase “Much worse than most other kids my age” and at the right end with “Much better than other kids my age.” The CATC-HAQ38 (9) and C-HAQ38CATII (10) have 5 response options: −2 = much worse, −1 = a little worse, 0 = the same, 1 = a little better, 2 = much better compared to most kids my age. The C-HAQ38CATI (10) uses the original 0–3 response scale. The ChoiceC-HAQ38 (9) includes 2 sentence stems for each question, stating 1) the activity was performed by some children “really easily,” or 2) but other children weren't able to perform the activity or were only able to do so “slowly or with difficulty.” The respondent chooses one sentence stem and then indicates if the chosen statement was “really true” or “sort of true” for the child.

Recall period for items.

1 week.

Endorsements.

The original C-HAQ is the preferred measure of physical function in the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation core set of outcome measures for pediatric rheumatology (11).

Examples of use.

Oliveira S, Ravalli A, Pistorio A, Castell E, Malattia C, Prieur AM, et al. Proxy-reported health-related quality of life of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization multinational quality of life cohort study. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:35–43.

Singh-Grewal D, Schneiderman-Walker J, Wright V, Bar-Or O, Beyene J, Selvadurai H, et al. The effects of vigorous exercise training on physical function in children with arthritis: a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trail. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:1202–10.

Van Brussel M, Lelieveld OT, van der Net J, Engelbert RH, Helders PJ, Takken T. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2007;57:891–7.

Lelieveld OT, Armbrust W, van Leeuwen MA, Duppen N, Geertzen JH, Sauer PJ, et al. Physical activity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59;1379–84.

Practical Application

How to obtain.

The original C-HAQ can be found on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) web site at http://www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/pediatric_assessments/chaq.pdf#search=%22CHAQ%22. Revised versions of the C-HAQ are available through the authors (9, 10). There is no cost.

Method of administration.

By interview or self-report of children age ≥8 years. Parent reports as proxy for a child age <8 years.

Scoring.

All versions are scored by hand. The original C-HAQ and revised versions provide instructions on scoring to the respondent. No instructions for handling missing values are provided.

Score interpretation.
Part I (DI).

In the original C-HAQ, scoring range is 0–3, higher scores reflect greater disability. The highest scoring item in each category determines the score for that category. If the respondent indicates the need for assistance or the use of aids/devices to perform a task, the minimum score for that category is 2. The mean score for the 8 domains makes up the DI (range 0–3).

In most revised versions of the C-HAQ, the summary score for the DI is determined by averaging the scores on all answered items (30 or 38), eliminating the domain structure, and the use of aids/devices and assistance.

In the VASC-HAQ38, each item is scored as the distance from the left end of the 10-cm line to the point where the child/parent places a slash mark to indicate the child's ability compared to other children of that age. The DI is the mean score for all 38 items. Higher scores indicate better function or less disability.

The CATC-HAQ38 uses a 5-point scale ranging from −2 (much worse) to 2 (much better) than other children of the same age. Higher positive scores indicate better function or less disability.

The C-HAQ38CATI uses the original C-HAQ 0–3 score range; the DI is calculated as the mean of all 38 items, with higher scores indicating greater disability.

The ChoiceC-HAQ38 uses a 0–4 scale, with higher scores indicating better function or less disability.

Part II (discomfort index) and Part III (health status).

Each are measured on separate 15-cm VAS. The distance from the left end of the scale to the respondent's mark is measured and multiplied by 0.2 to calculate the score (range 0–3). Both the discomfort index and health status can be rescaled to 0–100 scales. Higher scores indicate greater pain and worse overall health status.

Normative values are not available for this criterion-referenced test. Dempster et al (12) reported mean scores on the DI of the original C-HAQ that represent no disability (0), mild disability (0.24), mild-to-moderate disability (0.71), and moderate disability (1.53).

Respondent burden.

The original C-HAQ takes 10 minutes for the respondent to complete, the C-HAQ38 version takes 10–15 minutes to complete.

Adminstrative burden.

The original version takes ∼10 minutes when administered by interview; slightly longer for C-HAQ38 versions.

The time to score varies by version of the C-HAQ. The original C-HAQ and C-HAQ38CATI take less than 2 minutes to score the DI; additional time is necessary to measure the VAS for pain and health status. The VASC-HAQ38 takes ∼15–20 minutes to measure all 38 VAS for the DI plus scales for pain and health status. No special training is needed to score or interpret, although it is necessary to read the original publications describing the scoring for each version of the C-HAQ.

Translations/adaptations.

The original C-HAQ has been translated and validated for use in over 40 languages and cultures including Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Swedish, and Norwegian. Several revised versions of the C-HAQ38 have been translated into Dutch, Swedish, Turkish, Greek, and Danish.

Psychometric Information

Method of development.

The original C-HAQ (3) consists of items from the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), adapted for use in children ages 1–19 years; several new questions were added to each functional area so there was at least 1 question that was relevant to children of all ages.

The disability section assesses functions in 8 areas or subscales that describe mostly typical ADLs, although individual item and section scores are not reported. In the C-HAQ38 versions, additional items were derived from investigators' own experience and interviews of patients with musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to measure strengths as well as weaknesses by comparing the child's abilities to most other children of the same age (9, 10).

Acceptability.

Authors do not report the reading level, however the language for most items is simple and easy to read and understand. Missing data do not appear to be a problem and have not been addressed by the authors. The original C-HAQ is known to have a ceiling effect in children with mild disease, making it difficult to measure improvement at the better end of the functional spectrum.

Reliability.
Original C-HAQ (1).

Internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α) was 0.94. Test–retest stability was established for parents' responses on the DI administered once in the clinic and completed by parents at home within a mean interval of 12.8 days, with an SEM of 2.1. Paired t-test showed no significant difference between the 2 test scores (P > 0.9), and a Spearman's correlation coefficient of 0.79 (P < 0.002) showed strong test–retest reliability. Concordance between parent and child responses on the DI was Spearman's rho = 0.84, P < 0.001.

C-HAQ38 version (9).

Concordance between parent and child responses on the DI showed the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.41–0.68.

Validity.
Original C-HAQ (3).

Content was evaluated by a panel of experts (rheumatologists, nurses, social workers, physical and occupational therapists).

Criterion validity measures: parents' responses on the DI demonstrated strong positive correlations (P < 0.0001 by Kendall's tau) with accepted measures of disease activity, including the Steinbrocker Functional class (0.77), number of involved joints (0.67), physician assessment of global disease (0.67), and morning stiffness (0.54).

Discriminant validity measures: control group of 22 healthy children scored 0 on both the disability and discomfort indices, indicating the ability of the C-HAQ to discriminate between children with and without juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

C-HAQ38 versions (9, 10, 13–15).

Versions that included 8 more challenging items, removal of aids/devices and assistance, and elimination of the domain structure resulted in more normally-distributed data and better ability to discriminate between patients and controls compared to versions with 30 items. Relative efficiency of the revised versions ranged from 1.01 (C-HAQ38CATI) to 2.32 (VASC-HAQ38).

Ability to detect change.
Juvenile arthritis.

Singh et al (3) reported parent responses on the DI correlated significantly with their global assessment of the child's functional status. The C-HAQ DI was more sensitive to change than morning stiffness or active joint count.

Dempster et al (12) did not report the ability to detect change in the original C-HAQ but provided guidelines for interpreting the clinical utility of baseline and change scores on the DI. They reported the mean score on the DI that represents no disability (0), mild disability (0.24), mild-to-moderate disability (0.71), and moderate disability (1.53). The minimum important change (MIC) scores varied by disability category. The MIC for improvement was −0 (no disability), −0.13 (mild), −0.38 (mild-to-moderate), and −0.57 (moderate). The MIC for deterioration was 0.75 (no disability and mild disability), 0.63 (mild-to-moderate disability), and 0.38 (moderate disability).

Juvenile dermatomyositis (juvenile DM).

Huber et al (4) reported adequate responsiveness of the C-HAQ by comparing changes in the DI and physician global assessment (10-cm VAS) in 90 children with juvenile DM. Effect size for 18 subjects who met the criterion for improvement (3 cm on the VAS) was 1.05, with a standardized response mean (SRM) of 1.20. In 72 subjects who did not meet the criterion for improvement, effect size was 0.20 and SRM was 0.32.

Feldman et al (5) reported moderate to good responsiveness of the C-HAQ DI to clinical change in children with juvenile DM undergoing specific drug therapies. Responsiveness of revised versions for use in juvenile DM has not been reported.

Critical Appraisal of Overall Value to the Rheumatology Community

Strengths.

The C-HAQ is the most frequently used measure of physical function in pediatric rheumatology; the instrument measures typical ADLs expected of children ages 1–19 years that may be difficult for some children with arthritis or other chronic musculoskeletal conditions. It is included in the core set of outcome measures for clinical trials in JIA, juvenile DM, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

The C-HAQ is simple to administer as a self-report for children age ≥8 years or by parents as proxy for their child. It takes minimal time to administer and score. Groups or conditions for which the instrument may be appropriate include children with JIA, juvenile DM, SLE, and chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes.

Revised versions with 8 more challenging items (C-HAQ38), modified response options, elimination of aids/devices and assistance, and a simple mean score for all 38 items appear to result in a more normal score distribution, improved ability to discriminate between patients and healthy children, and greater sensitivity to change with intervention.

Caveats and cautions.

The original C-HAQ suffers from a ceiling effect in children with mild disease who have few limitations in basic and instrumental ADLs, limiting its ability to demonstrate improved physical function at the higher end of the scale. The revised versions demonstrate improved psychometric attributes and may prove over time to be a better measure of physical function in children with rheumatic disease.

Clinical usability.

The original C-HAQ30 is useful in identifying activity limitations and change in physical function over time or with intervention in children with moderate to severe disease, but less so in children with mild disease. The C-HAQ is easy to administer and score and useful in both clinical and research settings. The respondent burden is minimal.

Research usability.

The original and revised versions of the C-HAQ are easy to administer and score, however the strong ceiling effect of the original C-HAQ may limit its ability to detect change in physical function in children with mild disease. The C-HAQ38CATI closely adheres to the original C-HAQ and may be the most time-efficient for research purposes. However the VASC-HAQ38, in which the respondent compares the child's abilities with those of others the same age, may be more meaningful to the child and provide a better measure of the child's participation in age-appropriate activities. Dempster et al (12) provide cut points to judge a child's level of disability and to detect clinically important change at each level of disability.

JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES

Description

Purpose.

To measure functional ability in children with rheumatic disease, ages 7–16 years by observing the child's actual performance of typical activities under standardized conditions and procedures. It was originally published in 1989 by Lovell et al (16) as a companion measure to the Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report, a questionnaire-based measure of the child's ability to perform activities during the previous week. There have been no revisions or modifications to the original instrument.

Content.

Activities of daily living (ADLs) considered by expert opinion to be important and often difficult for children with arthritis include dressing, cutting food, getting in and out of bed, picking up an object from the floor while standing, moving from standing to the floor and returning to standing, walking 50 feet unaided, and walking up a flight of 5 steps.

Number of items.

10 items in a single scale.

Response options/scale.

Categorical (0–2) scale, based on the time in seconds the child takes to complete each task. The child's performance is compared to a criterion time (mean plus 2 SDs) established for healthy children (0 = task performed in less than or equal to the criterion time; 1 = task performed in time in excess of the criterion time; 2 = child unable to perform the activity).

Recall period for items.

Performance-based measure (capacity).

Endorsements.

Developed for use in a US Bureau of Maternal and Child Health and Resources Development project.

Examples of use.

Bekkering WP, ten Cate RT, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, Mul D, van der Velde EA, van den Ende CH. The relationship between impairments in joint functions and disabilities in independent function in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2001;28:1099–105.

Sircar D, Ghosh B, Ghosh A, Hildar S. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Indian Pediatr 2006;43:429–33.

Practical Application

How to obtain.

The JAFAS, standardized testing procedures, and detailed descriptions of the required equipment, performance criteria, and guidelines for timing are available from the original authors (16).

Method of administration.

A trained tester observes the child's performance of each task and enters either the time (seconds) needed to complete the task or “unable to complete.” Standardized testing procedures and detailed descriptions of required equipment and guidelines for testing are available from the authors (16).

Scoring.

The JAFAS is scored by hand. Specific scoring instructions are found in the original paper and are available from the authors (16). The score range for each item is 0–2, and 0–20 for the entire scale (10 items). The authors do not provide instructions for handling missing values, however the scoring criteria include a score for the child being unable to complete the task.

Score interpretation.

Higher scores on individual items (range 0–2) and on the full scale (range 0–20) indicate greater activity limitation. The JAFAS is a criterion-referenced measure, with the criterion (mean plus 2 SDs) being the time required by healthy children to perform each task.

Respondent burden.

Approximately 10 minutes.

Adminstrative burden.

Approximately 15 minutes; training to administer the test is required but is minimal.

Translations/adaptations.

The original version is in English. The measure has not been adapted for other languages or cultures. Although the JAFAS was originally developed for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), it is useful for children with other types of arthritis or other childhood rheumatic diseases that negatively impact a child's ability to perform basic ADLs.

Psychometric Information

Method of development.

Items were selected from other assessment tools, including the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, and the McMaster Health Index Questionnaire. Selected items were reviewed by a panel of pediatric occupational and physical therapists who had experience with patients with JRA; the panel chose a variety of tasks that required the use of all joints and muscle groups, were simple to test, objectively measureable, and important to daily function. The original scale of 23 items was reduced to include 10 tasks after all subjects were tested and data analysis performed (16).

Acceptability.

The scale, directions, and scoring requirement are clearly written and understandable. Although not discussed by the authors, missing data do not appear to be a problem. There does appear to be a floor effect whereby children with mild disease and few limitations score very low on the scale and have little room to show improvement in their physical function with intervention.

Reliability.

Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.85 (16). Interitem correlation for the JAFAS scores in children with JRA was 0.36, suggesting items measure different factors of the activity component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. No information is available on intratester or intertester reliability or test–retest stability of the JAFAS score in children. A recent study (17) comparing the measurement properties of the JAFAS and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ) in a single sample of 28 children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis reported the internal consistency of the JAFAS (0.91) to be lower than the C-HAQ (0.96).

Validity.
Content validity.

Items were selected from 3 validated measures of physical function for adults with arthritis and reviewed by a panel of experts in JRA.

Convergent validity.

Demonstrated by examining the correlation between JAFAS scores of children with JRA and accepted measures of disease activity; active joint count (r = 0.40, P = 0.003), Steinbrocker functional class (r = 0.59, P = 0.001), global disease activity score (0 = active, 1 = partial remission, 2 = total remission) (r = −0.32, P = 0.01). Bekkering et al (17) reported higher correlations between standard measures of disease activity and the C-HAQ (rs = 0.41–0.73) then the JAFAS (rs = 0.07–0.50). One reason may be the JAFAS measures the speed of a child's actual performance of tasks at a specific time point whereas the C-HAQ measures the amount of difficulty the child had performing tasks over the previous week.

Ability to detect change.

There is no published evidence of the ability of the JAFAS to detect change in a child's physical function over time or with intervention.

Critical Appraisal of Overall Value to the Rheumatology Community

Strengths.

The JAFAS is a quick and relatively simple test to administer. It addresses the activity component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health by measuring the child's capacity to perform typical and necessary daily physical tasks. The total JAFAS score demonstrates an acceptable relationship with several measures of disease activity and severity, including swollen joint count and limited joint motion. The test may be appropriate to evaluate rehabilitation interventions in children with active disease and limited joint motion that negatively impacts their ability to perform basic ADLs. The JAFAS may be most appropriate for children whose joint range of motion is limited due to acute or chronic joint inflammation and muscle weakness.

Caveats and cautions.

The JAFAS measures the child's capacity to perform only 10 simple activities and does not include complex motor skills required for individual or team sports. Thus it may not be sensitive enough to detect functional limitations that negatively impact a child's participation in school and community settings. This problem will be most evident in children with mild disease and few limitations in basic ADLs. The interrater and intrarater reliability of the JAFAS and the stability of test results over time have not been examined. Also, the ability of the test to detect change in a child's physical function over time or with intervention has not been examined.

Clinical usability.

The JAFAS takes minimal training, equipment, and time to administer and score, thus it does not pose a burden on either the child or tester. It can be easily performed in a clinic or office. Clinicians can compare a child's total JAFAS score and scores on individual test items to the criterion values for healthy children in order to determine the need for a referral to physical or occupational therapy for a more detailed evaluation and intervention.

Research usability.

The JAFAS demonstrates adequate validity and reliability as a measure of physical function in children with arthritis. It is also the only measure in pediatric rheumatology that measures a child's physical capacity to perform daily activities. However, the usability of the JAFAS in research is limited by the lack of information on the test's responsiveness to changes in disease status over time or to medical or rehabilitative intervention.

PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES

Description

Purpose.

To assess patients under the age of 19 years for overall health, pain, and ability to participate in normal daily activities, as well as more vigorous activities typically associated with young people. The target populations are children and adolescents ages 2–18 years with general health problems, specifically any problems related to bone and muscle conditions. Originally published in 1994 (18), and updated in 2005.

Content.

Five scales provide a broad view of the physical, mental, and psychosocial status of the child and adolescent patient. The scales are upper extremity and physical function, transfer and mobility tasks, sports/physical functioning, pain/comfort, treatment expectations, happiness, and satisfaction with symptoms. A Global Functioning scale consists of the mean of the “mean of items” values for the first 4 scales.

Number of items.

Total measure: Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (self report for youth 11–18 years of age) (83 items); Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (parent report to be completed by a parent or guardian of a youth 11–18 years old) (86 items); and Pediatric Outcomes Questionnaire (parent report to be completed by a parent or guardian of a child ≤10 years) (86 items). Number of items in the subscales: upper extremity and physical function (8 items), transfers and mobility (11 items), sports and physical function (21 items), pain/comfort (3 items), and happiness (5 items).

Response options/scale.

Most items use a categorical scale, with a range of 3–6 choices; some items require respondent to circle “yes” to all responses that apply to the patient.

Recall period for items.

One week for most items; one item asks parents to indicate how often over the past 12 months the child has missed school because of health problems.

Endorsements.

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS)

Examples of use.

Damiano D, Gilgannon M, Abel M. Responsiveness and uniqueness of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument to the Gross Motor Function Measure for measuring orthopedic and neurological outcomes in cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2005;25:641–5.

Huffman GR, Bagley AM, James MA, Lerman JA, Rab G. Assessment of children with brachial plexus birth palsy using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument. J Pediatr Orthop 2005;25:400–4.

Lerman JA, Sullivan E, Haynes R. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and functional assessment in patients with adolescent or juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and congenital scoliosis or kyphosis. Spine 2002;27:2052–7.

Vitale MG, Levy D, Moskowelijns A, Spellman M, Verdisco L, Roye D. Capturing quality of life in pediatric orthopeadics: two recent measures compared. J Pediatr Orthop 2001;21:629–35.

Practical Application

How to obtain.

Available at no cost on the AAOS web site http://www.aaos.org/research/outcomes/outcomes_peds.asp.

Method of administration.

Parent completes the Pediatric Outcomes Questionnaire as proxy for a child, ages 2–10 years, and Adolescent (parent report) Outcomes Questionnaire as proxy for adolescents, ages 11–18 years. Adolescents, ages 11–18 years, complete the Adolescent (self-report) Outcomes Questionnaire.

Scoring.

Specific instructions are provided for answering each item in the questionnaires. The majority of items are scored using a 1–5 range with 1 indicating the most positive response (i.e., The activity is EASY for the child; The child is VERY HAPPY; The child NEVER required help from another person). Some items include a 6th response choice, “Child is too young.” These items are coded as missing and omitted from the mean score. The AAOS web site provides a scoring worksheet in Microsoft Excel 2003 to record raw scores for all scales. General instructions are found on the Instructions tab. After administering the questionnaire, one enters the data into the worksheet on the Data Entry tab. Items with no entry are scored as missing and omitted from the mean score for that scale. Each worksheet includes formulae that build in any necessary item recoding, computation of missing items, and known general population means and SDs, as needed. Raw scores for each scale are converted to a standard score based on the mean of items that make up that scale. All items in a scale are first recalibrated so they are in the same metric, with a range of values from 0–5 for each item. Next the scores for all items comprising a scale are averaged over the number of items answered. The mean of the rescaled values is then multiplied by a constant so that each scale has a final range of values between 0–100.

Score interpretation.

All standardized scores (range 0–100) are calculated in the worksheets such that higher scores represent less disability and better functioning. However, the user must exercise caution in interpreting the meaning of an individual scale score. Although the standardized scores are all in the range of 0–100, the interpretation of a single standardized score is not consistent between scales due to differences in how the general, healthy population is scored. To make the standard scores comparative across various scales, data from the general US population was transformed for each scale so that the normative score for each scale has a mean of 50 and SD of 10. Thus, a patient scoring above 50 on a particular scale is above the general population's average, while a patient scoring below 50 on a scale is below the general, healthy population's average. To compute the individual normative score requires knowledge of the general population mean (standardized) score and corresponding SDs. These values are included in the instrument's scoring worksheets and can also be found at http://www.aaos.org/research/outcomes/outcomes_documentation.asp#scoring. The normative score for an individual patient is calculated using the actual mean and SD of the 0–100 scale from the general, healthy population using the following formula: subtract the general population standardized mean from each individual's standardized score; divide this by the general population's SD; multiply the resulting value by 10 and add 50 to the resulting number. This is the final normative score for that patient. The AAOS web site provides a clear example of the formula.

Respondent burden.

The time to complete is not specified on the web site but an estimate is approximately 15 minutes to complete all items. Although the exact reading level is not stated, the language is fairly simple and should be understandable for most respondents. Most items require objective responses, however a few may be emotionally sensitive to parents or adolescents; for example, “Is it easy or hard for you (your child) to make friends with children his/her own age?”

Administrative burden.

Minimal time to administer; scoring must be done using the Excel worksheet on the AAOS web site and may be time-consuming. Training is not necessary, but one must follow the algorithms or formulae on the scoring worksheets to recode items to a single metric in order to calculate individual standardized scores.

Translations/adaptations.

Korean (19) and Spanish (20) versions are available.

Psychometric Information

Method of development.

The Pediatric Outcomes Instrument Development group (pediatric orthopedists, pediatric rheumatologists, and general adult orthopedists) agreed upon important domains to measure; these included upper and lower extremity function, ability to perform age-appropriate activities of daily living (ADLs), including recreation, pain or comfort, general happiness, expectations for treatment, and satisfaction with care. Questionnaire items were selected based on existing instruments, concerns of experts, and pilot testing with 112 parents and 64 adolescents (18). Clinical judgment, combined with classic psychometric methods (principal factor analysis, internal reliability, and item-total correction analysis) was used to create subscales that represent the domains of interest. Scales were created by averaging the item scores. Revisions to the original version were made to assess higher levels of physical function, including competitive sports, and to include response options for all items in each age group. The revised version was pilot tested in 30 parents and 30 adolescents.

Acceptability.

Readability of the questionnaires is acceptable. The percent of missing items among the individual scales in the parent questionnaires (for children ages 2–10 years and adolescents ages 11–18 years) ranged from 0–25, with the most missing items in the happy and satisfied scale. Authors state that, despite missing responses on individual items, there was little impact on the creation of the scales. Most missing items were for the youngest age group (2–5 years), with the item marked as the child being too young for the activity. The authors do not report a ceiling or floor effect, however they do report an age effect in some scales, such that older patients score better than average.

Reliability.
Internal consistency.

Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.76 (child form of happiness/satisfaction scale) to 0.95 (child form of transfers and mobility scale).

Test–retest agreement.

The Pearson correlations for a subset of parents who completed a second questionnaire 1 to 2 days after the first ranged from 0.71 (happiness and satisfaction scale) to 0.97 (transfers and mobility scale).

Interrater agreement.

Paired t-tests showed significant differences between the responses of pairs of parents and adolescents on all scales. In general, adolescents rated themselves higher on every measure of physical and mental health while parents had higher expectations for treatment outcome. The actual differences were small, considering the 0–100 score range for each scale, however the wide range of differences suggest that many parent/adolescent pairs differed significantly in their assessment of the child's condition.

Validity.

Information on the validity of the PODCI can be found on the AAOS web site and in an article by Daltroy et al (18).

Content validity.

Questionnaire items were selected based on their importance to patients, parents, and experts in the field; content validity was verified through pilot testing of the instruments.

Construct validity for the scales.

For convergent validity, physician ratings of global function were moderately to highly correlated to parent and adolescent ratings on the global function scale (r = 0.76), upper extremity function (r = 0.62), and transfers and mobility (r = 0.75).

For divergent validity, physician ratings of patients' function and severity of diagnosis were not correlated to parent or adolescent ratings of comfort, happiness, or expectations.

For discriminant validity, 3 PODCI scales and the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) scales of physical function were compared, using independent t-tests, in 390 patients grouped by diagnosis into those characterized by upper extremity or lower extremity dysfunction, or both, omitting those whose diagnosis was not clearly associated with a specific region. Several scales discriminated between patients with and without lower extremity dysfunction, but the PODCI sports and physical function scale was the strongest. Only the PODCI upper extremity function scale discriminated between patients with and without upper extremity problems. In multiple regression analyses, 59% of the physician's assessment of global function was characterized by PODCI function scales plus the comorbidity score, while the parent's overall assessment was based more on their perception of the child's overall happiness and comorbidities.

Ability to detect change.

Sensitivity of the PODCI scales to detect change over time was evaluated in several ways: 1) By correlation of change scores on the parent and physician questionnaire with parent and physician scores on a 5-point transition scale indicating change in the child's health status (much better to much worse) over a 9-month time period. Results indicated both parent and physician change score were almost completely uncorrelated with their transition scores. Higher correlations were found between change scores on the adolescent self-report and adolescent and physician transition scores. Adolescent PODCI global scores and two subscale scores correlated better with the adolescent and physician transition scores than the CHQ. However, based on regression analysis to understand the basis of parents' and adolescents' assessment of overall change in the patient's global health and orthopedic condition, the authors concluded that much of parent and adolescent judgment of improvement or decline in function was unrelated to self-perceived measures of current function or change from baseline. Parents and adolescents appear to base their judgments of change on different areas; 2) by sensitivity to change among a subset of patients who should change the most from baseline to followup assessment (score of ≤80 on a composite score of 0–100, consisting of physician-rated function, PODCI global function, and CHQ physical function). Comparing outcomes in a sample of 113 subjects with data on all key patient-report outcomes scales using t-tests, all PODCI scales, except upper extremity function, ranked higher on sensitivity than the CHQ physical function scale. The PODCI global score was 2.9 times more efficient than the CHQ at detecting change in this sample. In 49 adolescents with baseline composite scores of ≤80 and complete data for key scales, the most sensitive scale was the PODCI physical sports and activities scale, followed closely by the CHQ physical function and PODCI global score; and 3) By t-scores for sensitivity based on the severity of baseline diagnosis. Change scores were greatest for patients with diagnoses rated as most severe (n = 34). PODCI global score and 2 subscales were more sensitive to change than the CHQ physical function scale. The PODCI upper extremity function scale discriminated best between subjects with and without upper extremity impairments, 6.8 times more efficient than the CHQ global function. PODCI transfers and mobility scale was the best discriminator of function between groups with and without lower extremity impairments, being 2.6 times more efficient than the CHQ physical function scale.

Critical Appraisal of Overall Value to the Rheumatology Community.

Strengths.

The PODCI scales measure important elements of activity and participation (basic and instrumental ADLs and both recreational and competitive sports) that may be negatively affected by disease. The instrument shows adequate sensitivity to detect change in physical function with interventions. The PODCI scales have been used extensively in children with cerebral palsy and other orthopedic disorders. Children with juvenile arthritis were included in the development of the PODCI, although the instruments have not been used to examine the effectiveness of interventions in this population.

Caveats and cautions.

The scoring of the PODCI scales requires the use of a computer and the formulae for recoding some items can be complicated and time-consuming. Sensitivity to change appears to be strongest in patients with the most severe conditions for which there may be problems. Daltroy et al noted age effects in some scales and strongly recommended controlling for age when using the scales to compare outcomes in groups (18). Further testing specifically in groups of children with rheumatic disease should be done to confirm the instrument's usefulness in this population.

Clinical usability.

Psychometric properties of the PODCI may support the interpretation of scores to make decisions for individual patients. Although the respondent burden is minimal, the requirement for using a computer program to score and interpret the scale scores and global score will limit the usefulness of the instrument in the clinic.

Research usability.

The PODCI demonstrates appropriate psychometric properties to support use in clinical research. Time for the respondent to complete the questionnaire is not prohibitive (10–18 minutes). Although scoring of the individual scales and global scale requires the use of a computer, this should not limit their use in research.

ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES

Description

Purpose.

Measure physical disability and monitor functional change in children ages 5–15 years experiencing limitations in physical activities due to musculoskeletal disorders. Originally developed in 1995 and revised in 2007.

Content.

The ASK capability (ASKc) measures activities the child “could have done” (capability) and the ASK performance (ASKp) measures activities the child actually “did do” over the past week. Items are organized in 7 domains that measure basic and instrumental activities of daily living and play in children: personal care, dressing, other skills, locomotion, play, standing, and transfers.

Number of items.

Each version includes a total of 30 items: personal care (3 items), dressing (4 items), other skills (4 items), locomotion (7 items), play (2 items), standing (5 items), and transfers (5 items). Six other information items ask about the use of assistive devices and the amount of assistance the child needs for activities; these items are not included in the summary score for the scale.

Response options/scale.

5-point ordinal scale (range 0–4). The response options depend on the ASK version: ASKc (0 = with no problem, 1 = with a little problem, 2 = with a moderate problem, 3 = with a big problem, 4 = I could not); ASKp (0 = all of the time, 1 = most of the time, 2 = sometimes, 3 = once in a while, 4 = none of the time).

Recall period for items.

Previous week.

Endorsements.

The ASK is not specifically endorsed by any entity or organization, however, the instrument has been used extensively in research involving children with orthopedic disorders.

Examples of use.

Moreau NG, Simpson KN, Teefy SA, Damiano DL. Muscle architecture predicts maximum strength and is related to activity levels in cerebral palsy. Phys Ther 2010;90:1619–30.

Young NL, Varni JW, Snider L, McCormick A, Sawatzky B, Scott M, et al. The internet is valid and reliable for child-report: an example using the Activities Scale for Kids (ASK) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Scale (PedsQL). J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:314–20.

Dillon ER, Bjornson KF, Jaffe KM, Hall JG, Song K. Ambulatory activity in youth with arthrogryposis: a cohort study. J Perdiatr Orthop 2009;29:214–7.

Practical Application.

How to obtain.

Available for purchase from the ASK developers at: http://www.activitiesscaleforkids.com/. Contact information for the test developers is listed on the web site. The cost depends on the proposed use of the instrument (free for student projects and teaching purposes; $115 [Canadian] for clinical site annual license or nonfunded academic research; $585 [Canadian] for funded academic research; $875 [Canadian] for multisite funded academic research).

Method of administration.

Mailed to the child's home to be completed by the child in the home because most activities important to the child occur in the home, school, or community. Parents may read the items to a child younger than 9 years or those with cognitive impairments, however the child is expected to record the response.

Scoring.

A test booklet for each version (ASKp and ASKc) includes instructions in simple, concrete language, a scale with all possible responses and the meaning of each response, and an instruction card the child can use while he/she completes each item. Children are told to complete all items. The 5-point (0–4) ordinal scale is scored as follows: 4 points to the 1st response (0), 3 points to the 2nd response (1), 2 points to the 3rd response (2), 1 point to the 4th response (3), 0 points to the 5th response (4). A 6th response option, not applicable (N/A), is not included in the computation for the summary score. Scores on the 30 individual activity items (or the number completed by the child minus any N/A items) are aggregated into a single summary score for each version by averaging the responses, then multiplying by 25 in order to convert the score to a 0–100 range, where higher scores indicate better functional outcome. Examples of the calculation are provided in the test manual.

Score interpretation.

Higher scores indicate less disability or better functioning. Interpretation also depends on the purpose of the assessment. If the purpose is assessment of physical disability status, the clinician can compare a child's scores to data collected at the Hospital for Sick Children on a sample of 200 children with musculoskeletal disorders. The manual provides summary data for this sample. If the purpose is monitoring change in physical function, a change of ≥5 points is considered statistically significant. Summary scores changed by 1.73 SDs in a subsample of 34 children who were predicted by clinicians to make clinically important change. If the purpose is to identify discrepancies between capability and performance, then this may help the clinician choose areas of function on which to focus further assessment or therapy.

Normative scores are available in an article by Plint et al, where they examined the summary scores on the ASKp for 122 healthy children (21). The mean ± SD score of 92.12 ± 6.45 (range 74.14–100) differed significantly from that of a sample of children with mild (85.86 ± 13.17), moderate (52.66 ± 22.53), and severe (21.00 ± 10.23) disabilities.

Respondent burden.

The ASK takes approximately 30 minutes to complete the first time, but as little as 10 minutes on subsequent administrations. Instructions, items, and item responses are written in simple, concrete language. It may take slightly longer if a parent needs to read the items for a child younger than 9 years of age.

Adminstrative burden.

No training is necessary to use the ASK, however the user must read the manual and follow directions for administration and scoring. The ASK is mailed to the child's home and is self-administered by the child. A parent may read the items to the child younger than 9 years of age, but the child must record his or her response. Approximate time to score the instrument is 15 minutes.

Translations/adaptations.

The ASK web site (http://www.activitiesscaleforkids.com/private/ASK-500.html) indicates that instruments are available in several languages, including Canadian English, Canadian French, UK English, Spanish, and Dutch. Only the Canadian English version has been validated.

Psychometric Information

Method of development.

The ASK was developed in 8 stages. The initial stage involved item generation by children, ages 5–15 years, with diagnoses resulting in musculoskeletal impairments (amputations, athrogryposis, arthritis, dermatomyositis, cerebral palsy, fracture, muscular dystrophy, scoliosis, spina bifida) and their parents. Children were identified through various clinics at the Hospital for Sick Children (rheumatology, orthopedic, physical therapy) and through sports camp staff. Children with significant cognitive impairment were excluded. Parents and children were interviewed in their home and asked to list activities that were difficult for them (their child) to perform and tasks the child had to stop or had never performed. Clinicians also identified items for the scale. Children ranked items in order of importance. Participants were also asked to identify and rank items from other disability scales.

Item reduction based on consensus by a panel of experts using parent and child rankings resulted in 76 items, organized into 16 sub-domains. The test was formatted with simple, concrete language in the first person and pilot tested with 10 children. Two versions were developed, the ASKp and ASKc and field tested with 28 children and their parents (intertester agreement). Parents and children completed the ASK 2 weeks later to assess test–retest agreement. The ASK summary scores were also compared between groups of children that referring clinicians had rated as having mild, moderate, or severe disability, showing significant differences among the groups (P < 0.0001). Further reduction of items was done through expert consensus based on data from an exploratory Rasch analysis (22). The original ASK versions were reduced from 73 to 53 items by removing items that did not detect disability, were not identified as important to children, or were identified as being performed less than daily or to have always met the child's needs. The 53-item versions were used to measure validity and responsiveness. Additional Rasch analysis identified the best combination of items that maximized their spread along the difficulty continuum, maximized discrimination among children across the 5–15 year age range, and provided the strongest evidence for validity and responsiveness. This resulted in 29 items plus 1 additional item (hand writing) organized into 9 domains. These were reorganized into 7 domains producing the current 30-item versions of the ASKp and ASKc.

Acceptability.

The reading level is not stated, however the authors state the test was developed using simple, concrete language in the first person, making it easy for most children to understand. For children younger than the age of 9 years, parents may read the items to the child, although the child must record his or her response in the booklets.

The instructions state the child should complete all items. However, there is an equivalent scoring formula in the manual that takes into account the possibility of missing items (sum of all completed items times 25 divided by the maximum possible score for those items). Questions not answered or that are marked N/A are not included in either the numerator or denominator of the formula.

A ceiling effect was found in healthy children without a musculoskeletal disorder (N = 122), with most scores clustered around the higher end of the scale. No ceiling effect has been reported for either ASK version in children identified as having mild, moderate, or severe disability.

Reliability.

ASK forms were administered by mail to 40 children and their parents. Upon return of the first questionnaire, a second form was mailed to the families to determine test–retest reliability. Twenty-eight children completed the first questionnaire, 18 completed the second (2).

Internal consistency.

Chronbach's alpha is 0.99.

Test–retest reliability.

Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.97 for ASKp and ICC 0.98 for ASKc.

Interrater reliability.

(Child versus parent) ICC 0.96 for ASKp, ICC 0.98 for ASKc.

Intrarater reliability.

Child ICC 0.97 for ASKp, child ICC 0.98 for ASKc. Parent ICC 0.94 for ASKp, parent ICC 0.95 for the ASKc.

Validity.
Content validity.

The ASK was developed through generation of items from relevant literature, children with disabilities, their parents, and clinical experts. A panel of experts selected final items using a consensus approach based on the frequency of items generated by parents and children and their ranking of items for importance. Kappa coefficient (0.70) indicated items generated by parents and children were similar; Wilcoxon's signed rank test (P = 0.055) indicated a significant difference in the level of importance given to each activity item.

Construct validity.

This was examined using several methods in a sample of 200 children (mean ± SD age 10.1 ± 3.1 years, range 5–15 years). Convergent validity was assessed. Spearman's correlation between the ASK and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ) was 0.82 for the ASKp and 0.85 for the ASKc indicating both instruments were measuring the same construct, physical disability. Divergent validity assessed through Spearman's correlation between the ASKp and the Health Utilities Index constructs of emotion and speech were 0.15 and 0.09, respectively, which indicates these instruments are measuring different constructs. Discriminant validity was determined in a study of 200 children (mean age 10.1 years, range 5–15 years of age). Significant differences were found in the ASKp summary scores between children at different levels of disability according to their clinicians' global ratings (A analysis of variance P < 0.0001) (23, 24). Criterion validity was determined in a sample of 24 children (mean age 10.2 ± 3.3 years) with musculoskeletal disorders. The correlation between child and physician ASKc scores was high, Spearman's rho = 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.82–0.97). Interrater reliability was also high, ICC 0.99.

Ability to detect change.

Responsiveness to change was assessed in 22 children chosen from the larger sample of 200; these children were expected to change during a 6-month period based on predictions by their clinicians. Parents and children completed an initial ASKp, ASKc, and the C-HAQ. Parents were contacted after 6 months to determine if the expected change had occurred and were sent a second set of questionnaires to complete. The standardized response mean for the 3 instruments was 1.1 (ASKp), 0.94 (ASKc), and 0.96 (C-HAQ), indicating the ASKp was 16% more responsive than the C-HAQ, while the ASKc was 2% less responsive than the C-HAQ (24).

Critical Appraisal of Overall Value to the Rheumatology Community

Strengths.

The ASK measures a child's capability and performance of functional activities, a primary component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework that may be impacted by chronic rheumatic disease. The instruments have undergone rigorous development and psychometric testing and demonstrate excellent reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change over time or with intervention. The ASK was developed to assess physical disability in children with musculoskeletal impairments due to orthopedic disorders. It is appropriate for use in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis or other rheumatic diseases.

Caveats and cautions.

Although the ASKp has been shown to discriminate between levels of disability and between children with and without musculoskeletal disability, it is not appropriate as a measure of physical disability in children without musculoskeletal impairments due to ceiling effects in this population. This may limit the usefulness of the ASK in children with rheumatic disease who do not demonstrate impairments of the musculoskeletal system. An additional limitation is that the ASK, similar to other instruments that assess physical function in children, does not elicit the child's perspective on his or her abilities relative to other children of the same age, an important aspect of participation.

Clinical usability.

The ASK could be used to make decisions for individual patients regarding the focus of further assessment or therapy to address activity limitations. Because the ASK is mailed to the parent and completed in the home, there is very little administrative burden. Time for the child to compete the ASK is not excessive.

Research usability.

The psychometric properties of the ASK support its use in research. The instrument has been used extensively in research involving children with primary orthopedic disorders and those with musculoskeletal impairments secondary to neurologic conditions. The ASK requires little time for respondents to complete and minimal administrative time or effort since it is mailed to respondents and completed in the home. Scoring of each ASK version is simple and requires little time.

Table  . Summary Table for Measures of Pediatric Function*
ScalePurpose/contentMethod of administrationRespondent burdenAdministrative burdenScore interpretationReliability evidenceValidity evidenceAbility to detect changeStrengthsCautions
  • *

    C-HAQ = Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire; DI= disability index; VAS = visual analog scale; ES = effect size; SRM = standardized response mean; JAFAS = Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Scale; JIA = juvenile idiopathic arthritis; JRA = juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; ADL = activities of daily living; PODCI = Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument; ASK = Activities Scale for Kids; AAOS = American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficient.

C-HAQMeasure health status and physical function in children 1–19 years/ original C-HAQ 30 items in 8 domains; C-HAQ38 8 more difficult items and no domain structureChildren ≥9 years of age complete the questionnaire independently; parent reports as proxy for child <9 years30-item version ∼10 minutes to complete; C-HAQ38 10–12 minutes; C-HAQ38; reading level not specified but appropriate for 9-year-old∼10–15 minutes to administer depending on version used; ∼2–5 minutes to score by handIn original C-HAQ and C-HAQ38CATI the DI range 0–3 and higher scores indicate greater disability; in VASCHAQ38: higher scores indicate better functionStrong for parent as respondent: Cronbach's α = 0.9 for internal consistency; SEM = 2.1 for test–retest; interrater agreement for parent and child rs = 0.84Excellent for content validity; moderate to high for criterion validity; C-HAQ38 versions demonstrate improved ability to discriminate patients from controlsModerate to excellent for original C-HAQ depending on sample studied and base-line DI; ES = 1.05; SRM = 1.20Measures physical functions that may be limited in children with rheumatic diseases; easy to administer, useful in clinical and research settingsOriginal C-HAQ strong ceiling effect that limits usefulness in children with mild disease and few activity limitations; C-HAQ38 versions show more normal distribution, less ceiling effect, and improved ability to detect change in children with mild disease
JAFASMeasure capacity to perform 10 daily activities 7–16 year-old children with JRATrained tester observes and times the child as they perform each task using standardized protocol and equipment∼10 minutes∼15 minutes to administer and score test; training is required but minimal.Items scored on 0–2 ordinal scale; total scale range 0–20; higher scores indicate greater activity limitationInternal consistency α = 0.85; no data on test–retest or intertester reliabilityGood for content validity; fair to moderate correlation to measures of disease activity in JRAUnknownSimple to administer and score; total score shows acceptable relationship to disease activity measures; may be useful in clinical assessment or research to measure effects of intervention in children with moderate disease and limited ability to perform basic ADLsMeasures only a few activities; has limited ability to detect activity limitations in children with mild disease; no evidence of ability to detect change over time or with intervention
PODCIDaily activities, transfers, mobility, sports, pain, and treatment expectationsParent completes as proxy for child (2–10 years); adolescents (11–18 years) complete independently∼15 minutes to compete; reading level not stated, but language is simpleMinimal time to administer; computer scored using Excel work-sheet on AAOS web site; time to score can be lengthyStandardized scores range 0–100; higher scores indicate less disability. mean ± SD of normative score 50 ± 10Internal consistency excellent (α = 0.76–0.95); parent test–retest (r = 0.71–0.97); poor interrater agreement for parent and adolescent responses on all scalesContent good; construct: moderate to strong for convergent validity (0.62–0.76); discriminant: validity varies by scale; able to discriminate between children with and without dysfunction in lower extremitiesSensitivity to change among subset of patients expected to change the most (baseline score ≤80) was good to excellent, in patients with diagnosis rated as severeMeasures important basic ADLs as well as sports in children and teens with orthopedic conditions; shows adequate sensitivity to change, especially in severe disabilityComputer scoring necessary using AAOS software; re-scoring of some items necessary to calculate standard scores; sensitivity to change is strongest in groups with most severe disability
ASKMeasure physical disability and monitor changes in child's functional abilitiesMailed to child's home to be completed by child (ages 9–15 years); parent may read items to a child <9 years, but child must record answers30 minutes to complete the first time; 10 minutes on repeat tests; simple, concrete language is used for instructions, items, and response choicesNo training necessary, but user must read the manual and follow directions for administration and scoring; time to score ∼15 minutesSummary scores range 0–100; higher scores indicate better function or less disabilityInternal consistency Cronbach's α = 0.99; test—retest ASKpICC 0.97, ASKcICC 0.98; interrater ASKpICC 0.96, ASKcICC 0.98Excellent for content, convergent, divergent, and discriminant validitySRM = 1.1 ASKp, SRM = 0.94 ASKcMeasures capability and performance components of physical functions impacted by orthopedic impairments in children; excellent psychometric attributesMay not be appropriate to measure physical function in children with no musculoskeletal limitations; does not elicit child's perspective on abilities relative to other children of similar age

REFERENCES

  1. Top of page
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. CHILDHOOD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (C-HAQ)
  4. JUVENILE ARTHRITIS FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT SCALE (JAFAS)
  5. PEDIATRIC OUTCOMES DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS (PODCI)
  6. ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
  7. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
  8. REFERENCES
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