• 1
    Hochberg MC, for the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American College of Rheumatology. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 2
    Mina R, Brunner HI. Pediatric lupus: are there differences in presentation, genetics, response to therapy, and damage accrual compared with adult lupus? Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2010; 36: 5380, vii–viii.
  • 3
    Marks SD, Sebire NJ, Pilkington C, Tullus K. Clinicopathological correlations of paediatric lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 7783.
  • 4
    Weening JJ, D'Agati VD, Schwartz MM, Seshan SV, Alpers CE, Appel GB, et al. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 24150.
  • 5
    Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Nefrite Lupica (GISNEL). Lupus nephritis: prognostic factors and probability of maintaining life-supporting renal function 10 years after the diagnosis. Am J Kidney Dis 1992; 19: 4739.
  • 6
    Lee BS, Cho HY, Kim EJ, Kang HG, Ha IS, Cheong HI, et al. Clinical outcomes of childhood lupus nephritis: a single center's experience. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 22231.
  • 7
    Moroni G, Quaglini S, Gallelli B, Banfi G, Messa P, Ponticelli C. The long-term outcome of 93 patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 25319.
  • 8
    Hiramatsu N, Kuroiwa T, Ikeuchi H, Maeshima A, Kaneko Y, Hiromura K, et al. Revised classification of lupus nephritis is valuable in predicting renal outcome with an indication of the proportion of glomeruli affected by chronic lesions. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2008; 47: 7027.
  • 9
    Nezhad ST, Sepaskhah R. Correlation of clinical and pathological findings in patients with lupus nephritis: a five-year experience in Iran. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2008; 19: 3240.
  • 10
    Tanaka H, Tsugawa K, Oki E, Suzuki K, Ito E. Mizoribine intermittent pulse protocol for induction therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus in children: an open-label pilot study with five newly diagnosed patients. Clin Rheumatol 2008; 27: 859.
  • 11
    Grootscholten C, Ligtenberg G, Hagen EC, van den Wall Bake AW, de Glas-Vos JW, Bijl M, et al. Azathioprine/methylprednisolone versus cyclophosphamide in proliferative lupus nephritis: a randomized controlled trial. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 73242.
  • 12
    Ginzler EM, Dooley MA, Aranow C, Kim MY, Buyon J, Merrill JT, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil or intravenous cyclophosphamide for lupus nephritis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 221928.
  • 13
    Houssiau FA, Vasconcelos C, D'Cruz D, Sebastiani GD, Garrido E, Danieli MG, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy in lupus nephritis: the Euro-Lupus Nephritis Trial, a randomized trial of low-dose versus high-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 212131.
  • 14
    Appel GB, Contreras G, Dooley MA, Ginzler EM, Isenberg D, Jayne D, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide for induction treatment of lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 110312.
  • 15
    Esquenazi A, Novak I, Sheean G, Singer BJ, Ward AB. International consensus statement for the use of botulinum toxin treatment in adults and children with neurological impairments: introduction. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17 Suppl 2: 18.
  • 16
    Buie T, Campbell DB, Fuchs GJ III, Furuta GT, Levy J, Vandewater J, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics 2010; 125 Suppl 1: S118.
  • 17
    Delbecq AL, Van de Ven AH, Gustafson DH. Group techniques for program planning: a guide to nominal group and Delphi processes. Glenview (IL): Scott, Foresman; 1975.
  • 18
    Brunner HI, Mina R, Pilkington C, Beresford MW, Reiff A, Levy DM, et al. Preliminary criteria for global flares in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63: 121323.
  • 19
    Lovell DJ, Passo MH, Beukelman T, Bowyer SL, Gottlieb BS, Henrickson M, et al. Measuring process of arthritis care: a proposed set of quality measures for the process of care in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63: 106.
  • 20
    Wallace CA, Ruperto N, Giannini E. Preliminary criteria for clinical remission for select categories of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 22904.
  • 21
    Gourley MF, Austin HA III, Scott D, Yarboro CH, Vaughan EM, Muir J, et al. Methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, alone or in combination, in patients with lupus nephritis: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 54957.
  • 22
    Renal Disease Subcommittee of the American College of Rheumatology Ad Hoc Committee on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Response Criteria. The American College of Rheumatology response criteria for proliferative and membranous renal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54: 42132.
  • 23
    Gordon C, Jayne D, Pusey C, Adu D, Amoura Z, Aringer M, et al. European consensus statement on the terminology used in the management of lupus glomerulonephritis. Lupus 2009; 18: 25763.
  • 24
    Vu TV, Escalante A. A comparison of the quality of life of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with and without endstage renal disease. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 2595601.
  • 25
    Walsh M, Jayne D, Moist L, Tonelli M, Pannu N, Manns B. Practice pattern variation in oral glucocorticoid therapy after the induction of response in proliferative lupus nephritis. Lupus 2010; 19: 62833.
  • 26
    Guiducci C, Gong M, Xu Z, Gill M, Chaussabel D, Meeker T, et al. TLR recognition of self nucleic acids hampers glucocorticoid activity in lupus. Nature 2010; 465: 93741.
  • 27
    Barron KS, Person DA, Brewer EJ Jr, Beale MG, Robson AM. Pulse methylprednisolone therapy in diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. J Pediatr 1982; 101: 13741.
  • 28
    Ad Hoc Working Group on Steroid -Sparing Criteria in Lupus. Criteria for steroid-sparing ability of interventions in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of a consensus meeting. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 342731.
  • 29
    Hagelberg S, Lee Y, Bargman J, Mah G, Schneider R, Laskin C, et al. Longterm followup of childhood lupus nephritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 263542.
  • 30
    Lau KK, Ault BH, Jones DP, Butani L. Induction therapy for pediatric focal proliferative lupus nephritis: cyclophosphamide versus mycophenolate mofetil. J Pediatr Health Care 2008; 22: 2828.
  • 31
    Chiu SJ, Ou LS, Tsai TL, Hung IJ, Huang JL. Sequential evaluation of clinical and laboratory changes amongst children suffering from lupus nephritis during intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy. Clin Rheumatol 2006; 25: 5159.
  • 32
    Manger K, Wildt L, Kalden JR, Manger B. Prevention of gonadal toxicity and preservation of gonadal function and fertility in young women with systemic lupus erythematosus treated by cyclophosphamide: the PREGO-Study. Autoimmun Rev 2006; 5: 26972.
  • 33
    Gupta D, Zachariah A, Roppelt H, Patel AM, Gruber BL. Prophylactic antibiotic usage for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus on cyclophosphamide: a survey of US rheumatologists and the review of literature. J Clin Rheumatol 2008; 14: 26772.
  • 34
    Buratti S, Szer IS, Spencer CH, Bartosh S, Reiff A. Mycophenolate mofetil treatment of severe renal disease in pediatric onset systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2001; 28: 21038.
  • 35
    Kazyra I, Pilkington C, Marks SD, Tullus K. Mycophenolate mofetil treatment in children and adolescents with lupus. Arch Dis Child 2010; 95: 105961.
  • 36
    Sagcal-Gironella AC, Fukuda T, Wiers K, Cox S, Nelson S, Dina B, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mycophenolic acid and their relation to response to therapy of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2011; 40: 30713.
  • 37
    Filler G, Hansen M, LeBlanc C, Lepage N, Franke D, Mai I, et al. Pharmacokinetics of mycophenolate mofetil for autoimmune disease in children. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 4459.
  • 38
    Askenazi D, Myones B, Kamdar A, Warren R, Perez M, De Guzman M, et al. Outcomes of children with proliferative lupus nephritis: the role of protocol renal biopsy. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 9816.
  • 39
    Brunner HI, Silverman ED, To T, Bombardier C, Feldman BM. Risk factors for damage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: cumulative disease activity and medication use predict disease damage. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 43644.
  • 40
    Varni JW, Seid M, Rode CA. The PedsQL: measurement model for the pediatric quality of life inventory. Med Care 1999; 37: 12639.
  • 41
    Brunner HI, Higgins GC, Wiers K, Lapidus SK, Olson JC, Onel K, et al. Health-related quality of life and its relationship to patient disease course in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 153645.
  • 42
    Poe SS, Nolan MT, Dang D, Schauble J, Oechsle DG, Kress L, et al. Ensuring safety of patients receiving sedation for procedures: evaluation of clinical practice guidelines. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2001; 27: 2841.
  • 43
    David BA, Rodriguez A, Marks SW. Risk reduction and systematic error management: standardization of the pediatric chemotherapy process. In: Henriksen K, Battles JB, Keyes MA, Grady ML, editors. Advances in patient safety: new directions and alternative approaches (vol. 2: culture and redesign). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.
  • 44
    Little RR, Rohlfing CL, Wiedmeyer HM, Myers GL, Sacks DB, Goldstein DE. The national glycohemoglobin standardization program: a five-year progress report. Clin Chem 2001; 47: 198592.