• 1
    Vera-Recabarren MA, Garcia-Carrasco M, Ramos-Casals M, Herrero C. Comparative analysis of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and chronic lupus erythematosus: clinical and immunological study of 270 patients. Br J Rheumatol 2010; 162: 91101.
  • 2
    Fabbri P, Cardinali C, Giomi B, Caproni M. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus: diagnosis and management. Am J Clin Dermatol 2003; 4: 44965.
  • 3
    Wallace DJ, Hannans B. Dubois' lupus erythematosus. 5th ed. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1997.
  • 4
    Prystowsky SD, Gilliam JN. Discoid lupus erythematosus as part of a large disease spectrum: correlation of clinical features with laboratory findings in lupus erythematosus. Arch Dermatol 1975; 111: 144852.
  • 5
    Millard LG, Rowell NR. Abnormal laboratory test results and their relationship to prognosis in discoid lupus erythematosus: a long-term follow-up study of 92 patients. Arch Dermatol 1979; 115: 10558.
  • 6
    Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Petri M, Reveille JD, Ramsey-Goldman R, Kimberly RP. Baseline characteristics of a multiethnic lupus cohort: PROFILE. Lupus 2002; 11: 95101.
  • 7
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982; 25: 12717.
  • 8
    Hochberg MC, for the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee of the American College of Rheumatology. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 1725.
  • 9
    Gladman DD, Goldsmith CH, Urowitz MB, Bacon P, Fortin P, Ginzler E, et al. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus international comparison. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 3736.
  • 10
    Callen JP. Systemic lupus erythematosus in patients with chronic cutaneous (discoid) lupus erythematosus: clinical and laboratory findings in seventeen patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1985; 12: 27888.
  • 11
    Al-Attia HM. Clinicolaboratory profile of 33 Arabs with systemic lupus erythematosus. Postgrad Med J 1996; 72: 6779.
  • 12
    Millard TP, McGregor JM. Molecular genetics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Dermatol 2001; 26: 18491.
  • 13
    Lin YJ, Chen RH, Wan L, Sheu JC, Huang CM, Lin CY, et al. Association of TNF-α gene polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwanese patients. Lupus 2009; 18: 9749.
  • 14
    Knop J, Bonsmann G, Kind P, Doxiadis I, Vogeler U, Doxiadis G, et al. Antigens of the major histocompatibility complex in patients with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 1990; 122: 7238.
  • 15
    Lopez-Tello A, Rodriguez-Carreon AA, Jurado F, Yamamoto-Furusho JK, Castillos-Vazquez M, Chavez-Munoz C. Association of HLA-DRB1*16 with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus in Mexican Mestizo patients. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007; 32: 4358.
  • 16
    Furukawa F, Yamamoto Y, Kanazawa N, Muto M. Race differences in immunogenetic features and photosensitivity of cutaneous lupus erythematosus from the aspect of Japanese studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009; 1173: 5526.
  • 17
    Yell JA, Mbuagbaw J, Burge SM. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 1996; 135: 35562.
  • 18
    Tang X, Huang Y, Deng W, Tang L, Weng W, Zhang X. Clinical and serologic correlations and autoantibody clusters in systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective review of 917 patients in South China. Medicine (Baltimore) 2010; 89: 627.
  • 19
    Kapadia N, Haroon TS. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: study from Lahore, Pakistan. Int J Dermatol 1996; 35: 4089.
  • 20
    Molina JF, Molina J, Garcia C, Gharavi AE, Wilson WA, Espinoza LR. Ethnic differences in the clinical expression of systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study between African-Americans and Latin Americans. Lupus 1997; 6: 637.
  • 21
    Pons-Estel BA, Catoggio LJ, Cardiel MH, Soriano ER, Gentiletti S, Villa AR, et al, for the Grupo Latinoamericano de Estudio del Lupus. The Gladel multinational Latin American prospective inception cohort of 1,214 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: ethnic and disease heterogeneity among “Hispanics. ” Medicine (Baltimore) 2004; 83: 117.
  • 22
    Miot HA, Bartoli Miot LD, Haddad GR. Association between discoid lupus erythematosus and cigarette smoking. Dermatology 2005; 211: 11822.
  • 23
    Freemer MM, King TE Jr, Criswell LA. Association of smoking with dsDNA autoantibody production in SLE. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 8: 111.
  • 24
    Costenbader KH, Kim DJ, Peerzada J, Lockman S, Nobles-Knight D, Petri M, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50: 84957.
  • 25
    George J, Levy Y, Hoenfeld Y. Smoking and immunity: an additional player in the mosaic of autoimmunity. Scand J Immunol 1997; 45: 16.
  • 26
    Pons-Estel GJ, Alarcon GS, Gonzalez LA, Zhang J, Vila LM, Reveille JD, et al, for the LUMINA Study Group. Possible protective effect of hydroxychloroquine on delaying the occurrence of integument damage in lupus: LXXI, data from a multiethnic cohort. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010; 62: 393400.
  • 27
    Rahman P, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB. Smoking interferes with efficacy of antimalarial therapy in cutaneous lupus. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 17169.
  • 28
    Jewell ML, McCauliffe DP. Patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus who smoke are less responsive to antimalarial treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000; 42: 9837.
  • 29
    Wahie S, Daly AK, Cordell HJ, Goodfield MJ, Jones SK, Lovell CR, et al. Clinical and pharmacologic influences on response to hydroxychloroquine in discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective cohort study. J Invest Dermatol 2011; 131: 19816.
  • 30
    Leroux G, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Hulot JS, Amoura Z, Frances C, Aymard G, et al. Relationship between blood hydroxychloroquine and desethylchloroquine concentrations and cigarette smoking in treated patients with connective tissue diseases [letter]. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 15478.
  • 31
    Ng P, Tan SH, Koh ET, Tan T. Epidemiology of cutaneous lupus erythematosus in a tertiary referral centre in Singapore. Australas J Dermatol 2000; 41: 22933.
  • 32
    Parodi A, Massone C, Cacciapuoti M, Aragone MG, Bondavalli P, Cattarini G, et al. Measuring the activity of the disease in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Br J Dermatol 2000; 142: 45760.
  • 33
    Koskenmies S, Jarvine TM, Onkamo P, Panelius J, Tuovinen U, Hasan T, et al. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of Finnish lupus erythematosus patients with cutaneous manifestations. Lupus 2008; 17: 33747.
  • 34
    Tebbe B, Mansmann U, Wolina U, Auer-Grumbach P, Licht-Mbalyohere, Arensmeier M, et al. Markers in cutaneous lupus erythematosus indicating systemic involvement: a multicenter study on 296 patients. Acta Derma Venereol 1997; 77: 3058.
  • 35
    Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Font J, Sebastiani GD, Gil A, Lavilla P, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical and immunological patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 1993; 72: 11324.
  • 36
    Förger F, Matthias T, Oppermann M, Becker H, Helmke K. Clinical significance of anti-dsDNA antibody isotypes: IgG/IgM ratio of anti-dsDNA antibodies as a prognostic measure for lupus nephritis. Lupus 2004; 13: 3644.
  • 37
    Werth VP. Clinical manifestations of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Autoimmun Rev 2005; 4: 296302.
  • 38
    Zecevic RD, Vojvodic D, Ristic B, Pavlovic MD, Stefanovic D, Karadaglic D. Skin lesions: an indicator of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus? Lupus 2001; 10: 3647.
  • 39
    Akrekar SM, Bichile LS. Cutaneous vasculitis in lupus: a turning point in the history of disease? A case report and review of literature. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc 2005; 13: 2931.
  • 40
    Drenkard C, Villa AR, Reyes E, Abello M, Alarcon-Segovia D. Vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1997; 6: 23542.
  • 41
    Callen JP, Kingman J. Cutaneous vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a poor prognostic indicator. Cutis 1983; 32: 4336.
  • 42
    Nguyen VA, Pachinger O, Jaschke W, Tzankov A, Semenitz B, Sepp N. Severe mesenteric and coronary vasculitis: a late and uncommon complication in a patient with chronic discoid lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol 2006; 35: 4914.
  • 43
    Izui S, Lambert PH, Fournie GJ, Turler H, Miescher PA. Features of systemic lupus erythematosus in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides: identification of circulating DNA and renal localization of DNA-anti DNA complexes. J Exp Med 1977; 145: 111530.
  • 44
    Mortesen ES, Rekvig OP. Nephritogenic potential of anti-dsDNA antibodies against necrotic nucleosomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 696704.
  • 45
    Roujeau JC, Belghiti D, Hirbec G, Poli F, Sobel AT, Revuz J, et al. Silent lupus nephritis among patients with discoid lupus erythematosus. Acta Derm Venereol 1984; 64: 1603.
  • 46
    Feinglass EJ, Arnett FC, Dorsch CA, Zizic TM, Stevens MB. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: diagnosis, clinical spectrum, and relationship to other features of the disease. Medicine (Baltimore) 1976; 55: 32339.
  • 47
    Karassa FB, Ioannidis JP, Touloumi G, Boki KA, Moutsopoulos HM. Risk factors for central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. QJM 2000; 93: 16974.
  • 48
    Johnson RT, Richardson EP. The neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Medicine (Baltimore) 1968; 47: 33769.
  • 49
    The Canadian Hydroxychloroquine Study Group. A randomized study of the effect of withdrawing hydroxychloroquine sulfate in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1504.
  • 50
    Molad Y, Gorshtein A, Wysenbeek AJ, Guedj D, Majadla R, Weinberger A, et al. Protective effect of hydroxychloroquine in systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective long-term study of an Israeli cohort. Lupus 2002; 11: 35661.
  • 51
    Fessler BJ, Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Roseman J, Bastian HM, Friedman AW, et al, for the LUMINA Study Group. Systemic lupus erythematosus in three ethnic groups. XVI. Association of hydroxychloroquine use with reduced risk of damage accrual. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 147380.
  • 52
    Alarcon GS, McGwin G Jr, Bertoli AM, Fessler BJ, Calvo-Alen J, Bastian HM, et al. Effect of hydroxychloroquine in the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from LUMINA, a multiethnic cohort. Ann Rheum Dis 2007; 66: 116872.