• 1
    Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P, Baum J, Glass DN, Goldenberg J, et al. International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol 2004; 31: 3902.
  • 2
    Cellerini M, Salti S, Trapani S, D'Elia G, Falcini F, Villari N. Correlation between clinical and ultrasound assessment of the knee in children with mono-articular or pauci-articular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29: 11723.
  • 3
    Sureda D, Quiroga S, Arnal C, Boronat M, Andreu J, Casas L. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the knee: evaluation with US. Radiology 1994; 190: 4036.
  • 4
    Doria AS, Kiss MH, Lotito AP, Molnar LJ, de Castro CC, Medeiros CC, et al. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of the knee: evaluation with contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasound. Pediatr Radiol 2001; 31: 52431.
  • 5
    Eich GF, Halle F, Hodler J, Seger R, Willi UV. Juvenile chronic arthritis: imaging of the knees and hips before and after intra-articular steroid injection. Pediatr Radiol 1994; 24: 55863.
  • 6
    El-Miedany YM, Housny IH, Mansour HM, Mourad HG, Mehanna AM, Megeed MA. Ultrasound versus MRI in the evaluation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis of the knee. Joint Bone Spine 2001; 68: 22230.
  • 7
    Fedrizzi MS, Ronchezel MV, Hilario MO, Lederman HM, Sawaya S, Goldenberg J, et al. Ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of hip joint involvement in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 18205.
  • 8
    Friedman S, Gruber MA. Ultrasonography of the hip in the evaluation of children with seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 62932.
  • 9
    Frosch M, Foell D, Ganser G, Roth J. Arthrosonography of hip and knee joints in the follow up of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62: 2424.
  • 10
    Haslam KE, McCann LJ, Wyatt S, Wakefield RJ. The detection of subclinical synovitis by ultrasound in oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a pilot study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2010; 49: 1237.
  • 11
    Boers M, Brooks P, Strand CV, Tugwell P. The OMERACT filter for outcome measures in rheumatology [editorial]. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 1989.
  • 12
    Joshua F, Lassere M, Bruyn GA, Szkudlarek M, Naredo E, Schmidt WA, et al. Summary findings of a systematic review of the ultrasound assessment of synovitis. J Rheumatol 2007; 34: 83947.
  • 13
    Cheung PP, Dougados M, Gossec L. Reliability of ultrasonography to detect synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic literature review of 35 studies (1,415 patients). Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010; 62: 32334.
  • 14
    Kakati P, Sodhi KS, Sandhu MS, Singh S, Katariya S, Khandelwal N. Clinical and ultrasound assessment of the knee in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Indian J Pediatr 2007; 74: 8316.
  • 15
    Karmazyn B, Bowyer SL, Schmidt KM, Ballinger SH, Buckwalter K, Beam T, et al. US findings of metacarpophalangeal joints in children with idiopathic juvenile arthritis. Pediatr Radiol 2007; 37: 47582.
  • 16
    Magni-Manzoni S, Epis O, Ravelli A, Klersy C, Veisconti C, Lanni S, et al. Comparison of clinical versus ultrasound-determined synovitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 61: 1497504.
  • 17
    Neidel J, Boehnke M, Kuster RM. The efficacy and safety of intraarticular corticosteroid therapy for coxitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 16208.
  • 18
    Pascoli L, Wright S, McAllister C, Rooney M. Prospective evaluation of clinical and ultrasound findings in ankle disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: importance of ankle ultrasound. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 240914.
  • 19
    Rooney ME, McAllister C, Burns JF. Ankle disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: ultrasound findings in clinically swollen ankles. J Rheumatol 2009; 36: 17259.
  • 20
    Roth J, Scheer I, Kraft S, Keitzer R, Riebel T. Uncommon synovial cysts in children. Eur J Pediatr 2006; 165: 17881.
  • 21
    Laurell L, Court-Payen M, Nielsen S, Zak M, Boesen M, Fasth A. Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: diagnosis and follow-up of ultrasound-guided steroid injection in the ankle region. A descriptive interventional study. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2011; 9: 4.
  • 22
    Shahin AA, el-Mofty SA, el-Sheikh EA, Hafez HA, Ragab OM. Power Doppler sonography in the evaluation and follow-up of knee involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Z Rheumatol 2001; 60: 14855.
  • 23
    Shahin AA, Shaker OG, Kamal N, Hafez HA, Gaber W, Shahin HA. Circulating interleukin-6, soluble interleukin-2 receptors, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-10 levels in juvenile chronic arthritis: correlations with soft tissue vascularity assessed by power Doppler sonography. Rheumatol Int 2002; 22: 848.
  • 24
    Shanmugavel C, Sodhi KS, Sandhu MS, Sidhu R, Singh S, Katariya S, et al. Role of power Doppler sonography in evaluation of therapeutic response of the knee in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 2008; 28: 5738.
  • 25
    Tynjala P, Honkanen V, Lahdenne P. Intra-articular steroids in radiologically confirmed tarsal and hip synovitis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004; 22: 6438.
  • 26
    Allen GM, Drakonaki EE, Tan ML, Dhillon M, Rajaratnam V. High-resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis of upper limb disorders: a tertiary referral centre experience. Ann Plast Surg 2008; 61: 25964.
  • 27
    Bloom BJ, Tucker LB, Miller L, McCauley RG, Schaller JG. Bicipital synovial cysts in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: clinical description and sonographic correlation. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 19535.
  • 28
    Wakefield RJ, Balint PV, Szkudlarek M, Filippucci E, Backhaus M, D'Agostino MA, et al, for the OMERACT 7 Special Interest Group. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology. J Rheumatol 2005; 32: 24857.
  • 29
    Oen K, Malleson PN, Cabral DA, Rosenberg AM, Petty RE, Reed M, et al. Early predictors of long term outcome in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: subset-specific correlations. J Rheumatol 2003; 30: 58593.
  • 30
    Collado P, Naredo E, Calvo C, Crespo M. Assessment of the joint recesses and tendon sheaths in healthy children by high-resolution B-mode and power Doppler sonography. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2007; 25: 91521.
  • 31
    Spannow AH, Pfeiffer-Jensen M, Andersen NT, Herlin T, Stenbog E. Ultrasonographic measurements of joint cartilage thickness in healthy children: age- and sex-related standard reference values. J Rheumatol 2010; 37: 2595601.