• 1
    Hawker G, Wright J, Coyte P, Paul J, Dittus R, Croxford R, et al. Health-related quality of life after knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998; 80: 16373.
  • 2
    Singh J, Sloan JA, Johanson NA. Challenges with health-related quality of life assessment in arthroplasty patients: problems and solutions. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2010; 18: 7282.
  • 3
    Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Richy F, Dardennes C, Reginster JY. Health-related quality of life in total hip and total knee arthroplasty: a qualitative and systematic review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86A: 96374.
  • 4
    Nelson CL. Disparities in orthopaedic surgical intervention. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2007; Suppl 1: S137.
  • 5
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Racial disparities in total knee replacement among medicare enrollees-United States, 2000–2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2009; 58: 1338.
  • 6
    Ibrahim SA, Siminoff LA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Differences in expectations of outcome mediate African American/white patient differences in “willingness” to consider joint replacement. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 242935.
  • 7
    Ibrahim SA, Siminoff LA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Understanding ethnic differences in the utilization of joint replacement for osteoarthritis: the role of patient-level factors. Med Care 2002; 40: 4451.
  • 8
    Ibrahim SA, Siminoff LA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Variation in perceptions of treatment and self-care practices in elderly with osteoarthritis: a comparison between African American and white patients. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 45: 3405.
  • 9
    Groeneveld PW, Kwoh CK, Mor MK, Appelt CJ, Geng M, Gutierrez JC, et al. Racial differences in expectations of joint replacement surgery outcomes. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 7307.
  • 10
    Nwachukwu BU, Kenny AD, Losina E, Chibnik LB, Katz JN. Complications for racial and ethnic minority groups after total hip and knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010; 92: 33845.
  • 11
    Ong KL, Lau E, Suggs J, Kurtz SM, Manley MT. Risk of subsequent revision after primary and revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010; 468: 30706.
  • 12
    Mahomed NN, Barrett J, Katz JN, Baron JA, Wright J, Losina E. Epidemiology of total knee replacement in the United States Medicare population. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87: 12228.
  • 13
    SooHoo NF, Lieberman JR, Ko CY, Zingmond DS. Factors predicting complication rates following total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006; 88: 4805.
  • 14
    Ibrahim SA, Stone RA, Han X, Cohen P, Fine MJ, Henderson WG, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in surgical outcomes in veterans following knee or hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52: 314351.
  • 15
    Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. 2012. URL:
  • 16
    Skukla R, Fisher R, Fisher R. Testing of 3M's APR-DRG risk adjustment for hospital mortality outcomes [abstract]. Acad Health Serv Res Health Pol 2002; 19: 11.
  • 17
    Romano PS, Chan BK. Risk-adjusting acute myocardial infarction mortality: are APR-DRGs the right tool? Health Serv Res 2000; 34: 146989.
  • 18
    Bozic KJ, Wagie A, Naessens JM, Berry DJ, Rubash HE. Predictors of discharge to an inpatient extended care facility after total hip or knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 2006; 21: 1516.
  • 19
    Goldfield N, Averill R. On “risk-adjusting acute myocardial infarction mortality: are APR-DRGs the right tool?” Health Serv Res 2000; 34: 14915.
  • 20
    Liang KY, Zeger SL. Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 1986; 73: 1322.
  • 21
    Lin DY, Wei LJ. The robust inference for the proportional hazards model. J Am Stat Assoc 1989; 84: 10748.
  • 22
    Weaver F, Hynes D, Hopkinson W, Wixson R, Khuri S, Daley J, et al. Preoperative risks and outcomes of hip and knee arthroplasty in the veterans health administration. J Arthroplasty 2003; 18: 693708.
  • 23
    Collins TC, Daley J, Henderson WH, Khuri SF. Risk factors for prolonged length of stay after major elective surgery. Ann Surg 1999; 230: 2519.
  • 24
    Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. Hip and knee arthroplasty annual report 2008. 2011. URL:
  • 25
    Santaguida PL, Hawker GA, Hudak PL, Glazier R, Mahomed NN, Kreder HJ, et al. Patient characteristics affecting the prognosis of total hip and knee joint arthroplasty: a systematic review. Can J Surg 2008; 51: 42836.
  • 26
    Robertsson O, Knutson K, Lewold S, Lidgren L. The Swedish knee arthroplasty register 1975-1997: an update with special emphasis on 41,223 knees operated on in 1988-1997. Acta Orthop Scand 2001; 72: 50313.
  • 27
    Julin J, Jamsen E, Puolakka T, Konttinen YT, Moilanen T. Younger age increases the risk of early prosthesis failure following primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis: a follow-up study of 32,019 total knee replacements in the Finnish arthroplasty register. Acta Orthop 2010; 81: 4139.
  • 28
    Gioe TJ, Killeen KK, Grimm K, Mehle S, Scheltema K. Why are total knee replacements revised? Analysis of early revision in a community knee implant registry. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004; 428: 1006.
  • 29
    Rana AJ, Iorio R, Healy WL. Hospital economics of primary THA decreasing reimbursement and increasing cost, 1990 to 2008. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2011; 469: 35561.
  • 30
    Barbieri A, Vanhaecht K, van Herck P, Sermeus W, Faggiano F, Marchisio S, et al. Effects of clinical pathways in the joint replacement: a meta-analysis. BMC Med 2009; 7: 32.
  • 31
    Freburger JK, Holmes GM, Ku LJ, Cutchin MP, Heatwole-Shank K, Edwards LJ. Disparities in post-acute rehabilitation care for joint replacement. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2011; 63: 102030.
  • 32
    Bozic KJ, Maselli J, Pekow PS, Lindenauer PK, Vail TP, Auerback AD. The influence of procedure volumes and standardization of care on quality and efficiency in total joint replacement surgery. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2010; 92: 264352.
  • 33
    Katz JN, Barrett J, Mahomen NN, Baron JA, Wright RJ, Losina E. Association between hospital and surgeon volume and the outcomes of total knee replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2004; 86A: 190916.
  • 34
    Singh JA, Kwoh CK, Boudreau RM, Lee GC, Ibrahim SA. Hospital volume and surgical outcomes after elective hip/knee arthroplasty: a risk-adjusted analysis of a large regional database. Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63: 25319.
  • 35
    Bourne RB, Crawford HA. Principles of revision total knee arthroplasty. Orthop Clin North Am 1998; 29: 3317.