To assess the outcome of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in anti–Jo-1 patients with antisynthetase syndrome, determine predictive variables of ILD deterioration in these patients, and compare features of anti–Jo-1 patients with and without ILD.
Ninety-one anti–Jo-1 patients were identified by medical records search in 4 medical centers. All of these patients had undergone pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans.
Sixty-six patients (72.5%) had ILD. Patients could be divided into 3 groups according to their presenting lung manifestations: acute onset of lung disease (n = 12), progressive onset of lung signs (n = 35), and asymptomatic patients exhibiting abnormalities consistent with ILD on PFTs and HRCT scans (n = 19). Sixteen patients had resolution of ILD; 39 and 11 patients experienced improvement and deterioration of ILD, respectively. ILD led to decreased functional status, since 29.8% of patients exhibited a marked reduction of activities due to ILD and 13.6% had respiratory insufficiency requiring oxygen therapy; 5 of 6 patients died due to ILD complications. Predictive parameters of ILD deterioration were HRCT scan pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia, respiratory muscle involvement, and age ≥55 years. Furthermore, anti–Jo-1 patients with ILD, compared with those without, more frequently exhibited mechanic's hands and lower creatine kinase levels.
Our findings confirm that ILD is a frequent complication in anti–Jo-1 patients, resulting in high morbidity. We suggest that patients with predictive factors of ILD deterioration may require more aggressive therapy. Finally, anti–Jo-1 patients with ILD, compared with those without, may exhibit a particular clinical phenotype.