• 1
    Dagenais S, Garbedian S, Wai EK. Systematic review of the prevalence of radiographic primary hip osteoarthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2009;467:62337.
  • 2
    Lubar D, White PH, Callahan LF, Chang RW, Helmick CG, Lappin DR, et al. A national public health agenda for osteoarthritis 2010. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2010;39:3236.
  • 3
    DeFrances CJ, Podgornik MN. 2004 National Hospital Discharge Survey. Adv Data 2006;371:119.
  • 4
    Callahan LF, Blalock SJ. Behavioral and social research in rheumatology. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1997;9:12632.
  • 5
    Hannan MT, Anderson JJ, Pincus T, Felson DT. Educational attainment and osteoarthritis: differential associations with radiographic changes and symptom reporting. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45:13947.
  • 6
    Murphy LB, Helmick CG, Schwartz TA, Renner JB, Tudor G, Koch GG, et al. One in four people may develop symptomatic hip osteoarthritis in his or her lifetime. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010;18:13729.
  • 7
    Ingvarsson T, Stefansson SE, Hallgrimsdottir IB, Frigge ML, Jonsson H Jr, Gulcher J, et al. The inheritance of hip osteoarthritis in Iceland. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43:278592.
  • 8
    Valdes AM, Spector TD. Genetic epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011;7:2332.
  • 9
    Callahan LF, Smith WJ, Pincus T. Self-report questionnaires in five rheumatic diseases: comparisons of health status constructs and associations with formal education level. Arthritis Care Res 1989;2:12231.
  • 10
    Dalstra JA, Kunst AE, Borrell C, Breeze E, Cambois E, Costa G, et al. Socioeconomic differences in the prevalence of common chronic diseases: an overview of eight European countries. Int J Epidemiol 2005;34:31626.
  • 11
    Odutola J, Ward MM. Ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in health among patients with rheumatic disease. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2005;17:14752.
  • 12
    Sainio P, Martelin T, Koskinen S, Heliovaara M. Educational differences in mobility: the contribution of physical workload, obesity, smoking and chronic conditions. J Epidemiol Community Health 2007;61:4018.
  • 13
    Thumboo J, Chew LH, Lewin-Koh SC. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors influence pain or physical function in Asian patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2002;61:101720.
  • 14
    Herd P, Goesling B, House JS. Socioeconomic position and health: the differential effects of education versus income on the onset versus progression of health problems. J Health Soc Behav 2007;48:22338.
  • 15
    Callahan LF, Cleveland RJ, Shreffler J, Schwarz TA, Schoster B, Randolph R, et al. Associations of educational attainment, occupation and community poverty with knee osteoarthritis in the Johnston County (North Carolina) Osteoarthritis Project. Arthritis Res Ther 2011;13:R169.
  • 16
    Jordan JM, Luta G, Renner JB, Linder GF, Dragomir A, Hochberg MC, et al. Self-reported functional status in osteoarthritis of the knee in a rural southern community: the role of sociodemographic factors, obesity, and knee pain. Arthritis Care Res 1996;9:2738.
  • 17
    Knight JB, Callahan LF, Luong ML, Shreffler J, Schoster B, Renner JB, et al. The association of disability and pain with individual and community socioeconomic status in people with hip osteoarthritis. Open Rheumatol J 2011;5:518.
  • 18
    Woo J, Lau E, Lau CS, Lee P, Zhang J, Kwok T, et al. Socioeconomic impact of osteoarthritis in Hong Kong: utilization of health and social services, and direct and indirect costs. Arthritis Rheum 2003;49:52634.
  • 19
    Tepper S, Hochberg MC. Factors associated with hip osteoarthritis: data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-I). Am J Epidemiol 1993;137:10818.
  • 20
    Luong ML, Cleveland RJ, Nyrop KA, Callahan LF. Social determinants and osteoarthritis outcomes. Aging Health 2012;8:41337.
  • 21
    Callahan LF, Shreffler J, Siaton BC, Helmick CG, Schoster B, Schwartz TA, et al. Limited educational attainment and radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Johnston County (North Carolina) Osteoarthritis Project. Arthritis Res Ther 2010;12:R46.
  • 22
    Grotle M, Hagen KB, Natvig B, Dahl FA, Kvien TK. Prevalence and burden of osteoarthritis: results from a population survey in Norway. J Rheumatol 2008;35:67784.
  • 23
    Brennan SL, Stanford T, Wluka AE, Henry MJ, Page RS, Graves SE, et al. Cross-sectional analysis of association between socioeconomic status and utilization of primary total hip joint replacements 2006-7: Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2012;13:63.
  • 24
    Brennan SL, Turrell G. Neighborhood disadvantage, individual- level socioeconomic position, and self-reported chronic arthritis: a cross-sectional multilevel study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2012;64:7218.
  • 25
    Adler NE, Boyce WT, Chesney MA, Folkman S, Syme SL. Socioeconomic inequalities in health: no easy solution. JAMA 1993;269:31405.
  • 26
    Callahan LF, Shreffler J, Mielenz T, Schoster B, Kaufman JS, Xiao C, et al. Arthritis in the family practice setting: associations with education and community poverty. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59:10028.
  • 27
    Canizares M, Power JD, Perruccio AV, Badley EM. Association of regional racial/cultural context and socioeconomic status with arthritis in the population: a multilevel analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2008;59:399407.
  • 28
    Diez Roux AV, Merkin SS, Arnett D, Chambless L, Massing M, Nieto FJ, et al. Neighborhood of residence and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:99106.
  • 29
    Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Muntaner C, Tyroler HA, Comstock GW, Shahar E, et al. Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:4863.
  • 30
    Wang PP, Badley EM. Consistent low prevalence of arthritis in Quebec: findings from a provincial variation study in Canada based on several Canadian population health surveys. J Rheumatol 2003;30:12631.
  • 31
    Robert SA. Socioeconomic position and health: the independent contribution of community socioeconomic context. Annu Rev Sociol 1999;25:489516.
  • 32
    Jordan JM, Linder GF, Renner JB, Fryer JG. The impact of arthritis in rural populations. Arthritis Care Res 1995;8:24250.
  • 33
    United States Bureau of the Census.1990 census of population and housing: classified index of industries and occupations.Washington, DC:US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration; 1992.
  • 34
    Krieger N, Zierler S, Hogan JW, Waterman P, Chen J, Lemieux K, et al. Geocoding and measurement of neighborhood socioeconomic position: a US perspective. In: Kawachi I, Berkman LF, editors.Neighborhoods and health.New York:Oxford University Press;2003. p.14778.
  • 35
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S.Applied logistic regression.New York:John Wiley & Sons;2000.
  • 36
    Doubeni CA, Schootman M, Major JM, Stone RA, Laiyemo AO, Park Y, et al. Health status, neighborhood socioeconomic context, and premature mortality in the United States: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Public Health 2012;102:6808.
  • 37
    Callahan LF, Martin KR, Shreffler J, Kumar D, Schoster B, Kaufman JS, et al. Independent and combined influence of homeownership, occupation, education, income, and community poverty on physical health in persons with arthritis. Arthritis Care Research (Hoboken) 2011;63:64353.
  • 38
    Glymour MM, Mujahid M, Wu Q, White K, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ. Neighborhood disadvantage and self-assessed health, disability, and depressive symptoms: longitudinal results from the health and retirement study. Ann Epidemiol 2010;20:85661.
  • 39
    Jorgensen KT, Pedersen BV, Nielsen NM, Hansen AV, Jacobsen S, Frisch M. Socio-demographic factors, reproductive history and risk of osteoarthritis in a cohort of 4.6 million Danish women and men. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2011;19:117682.
  • 40
    Dixon T, Urquhart DM, Berry P, Bhatia K, Wang Y, Graves S, et al. Variation in rates of hip and knee joint replacement in Australia based on socio-economic status, geographical locality, birthplace and indigenous status. ANZ J Surg 2011;81:2631.
  • 41
    Nevitt MC. Risk factors for knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis. In: Arden N, Cooper C, editors.In: Osteoarthritis handbook.London:Taylor & Francis;2006. p.2348.
  • 42
    Lievense A, Bierma-Zeinstra S, Verhagen A, Verhaar J, Koes B. Influence of work on the development of osteoarthritis of the hip: a systematic review. J Rheumatol 2001;28:25208.
  • 43
    Paeratakul S, Lovejoy JC, Ryan DH, Bray GA. The relation of gender, race and socioeconomic status to obesity and obesity comorbidities in a sample of US adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:120510.
  • 44
    Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health 1997;18:34178.
  • 45
    Lynch JW, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT. Why do poor people behave poorly? Variation in adult health behaviours and psychosocial characteristics by stages of the socioeconomic lifecourse. Social Sci Med 1997;44:80919.
  • 46
    Tunstall HV, Shaw M, Dorling D. Places and health. J Epidemiol Community Health 2004;58:610.
  • 47
    Ang DC, Ibrahim SA, Burant CJ, Kwoh CK. Is there a difference in the perception of symptoms between African Americans and whites with osteoarthritis?J Rheumatol 2003;30:130510.
  • 48
    Jordan JM, Luta G, Renner JB, Dragomir A, Hochberg MC, Fryer JG. Ethnic differences in self-reported functional status in the rural south: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project. Arthritis Care Res 1996;9:48391.