Although it has been suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for developing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder (ACS), data on the temporal association between these 2 conditions are sparse. The purpose of this population-based age- and sex-matched cohort study was to investigate the risk of developing ACS in patients with newly diagnosed DM.


A total of 78,827 subjects with at least 2 ambulatory care visits with a principal diagnosis of DM in 2001 were recruited for the DM group. The non-DM group comprised 236,481 age- and sex-matched randomly sampled subjects without DM. The 3-year cumulative risk of ACS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the crude and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of developing ACS.


During a 3-year followup period, 946 subjects (1.20%) in the DM group and 2,254 subjects (0.95%) in the non-DM group developed ACS. The crude HR of developing ACS for the DM group compared to the non-DM group was 1.333 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.236–1.439, P < 0.0001), whereas the adjusted HR was 1.321 (95% CI 1.224–1.425, P < 0.0001) after adjustment for age, sex, and dyslipidemia.


This longitudinal population-based followup study showed that there is a significantly increased risk of developing ACS after developing DM.