• 1
    Felson DT, Hannan MT, Naimark A, Berkeley J, Gordon G, Wilson PW, et al.Occupational physical demands, knee bending, and knee osteoarthritis: results from the Framingham Study.J Rheumatol1991;18:158792.
  • 2
    Garstang SV, Stitik TP.Osteoarthritis: epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology.Am J Phys Med Rehabil2006;85 Suppl:S211.
  • 3
    Zhang Y, Jordan JM.Epidemiology of osteoarthritis.Clin Geriatr Med2010;26:35569.
  • 4
    Jensen LK.Knee osteoarthritis: influence of work involving heavy lifting, kneeling, climbing stairs or ladders, or kneeling/squatting combined with heavy lifting.Occup Environ Med2008;65:7289.
  • 5
    Maetzel A, Makela M, Hawker G, Bombardier C.Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee and mechanical occupational exposure: a systematic overview of the evidence.J Rheumatol1997;24:1599607.
  • 6
    Seidler A, Bolm-Audorff U, Abolmaali N, Elsner G.The role of cumulative physical work load in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a case control study in Germany.J Occup Med Toxicol2008;3:14.
  • 7
    Townsend EA, Polatajko HJ.Enabling occupation II: advancing occupational therapy vision for health, well-being, and justice through occupation.Ottawa:Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists;2007.
  • 8
    Teichtahl AJ, Wluka AE, Wang Y, Urquhart DM, Hanna FS, Berry PA, et al.Occupational activity is associated with knee cartilage morphology in females.Maturitas2010;66:726.
  • 9
    Yoshimura N, Kinoshita H, Hori N, Nishioka T, Ryujin M, Mantani Y, et al.Risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in Japanese men: a case-control study.Mod Rheumatol2006;16:249.
  • 10
    Bernard TE, Wilder FV, Aluoch M, Leaverton PE.Job-related osteoarthritis of the knee, foot, hand, and cervical spine.J Occup Environ Med2010;52:338.
  • 11
    Sowers MF, Hayes C, Jamadar D, Capul D, Lachance L, Jannausch M, et al.Magnetic resonance-detected subchondral bone marrow and cartilage defect characteristics associated with pain and x-ray-defined knee osteoarthritis.Osteoarthritis Cartilage2003;11:38793.
  • 12
    Hunter DJ, Arden N, Conaghan PG, Eckstein F, Gold G, Grainger A, et al.Definition of osteoarthritis on MRI: results of a Delphi exercise.Osteoarthritis Cartilage2011;19:9639.
  • 13
    Cibere J, Zhang H, Thorne A, Wong H, Singer J, Kopec JA, et al.Association of clinical findings with pre–radiographic and radiographic knee osteoarthritis in a population-based study.Arthritis Care Res2010;62:16918.
  • 14
    Kothari M, Guermazi A, von Ingersleben G, Miaux Y, Sieffert M, Block JE, et al.Fixed-flexion radiography of the knee provides reproducible joint space width measurements in osteoarthritis.Eur Radiol2004;14:156873.
  • 15
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS.Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis.Ann Rheum Dis1957;16:494502.
  • 16
    Cibere J, Bellamy N, Thorne A, Esdaile JM, McGorm KJ, Chalmers A, et al.Reliability of the knee examination in osteoarthritis: effect of standardization.Arthritis Rheum2004;50:45868.
  • 17
    O*NET online. URL:
  • 18
    Arvey RD, Begalla ME.Analyzing the homemaker job using the position analysis questionnaire (PAQ).J Appl Psychol1975;60:5137.
  • 19
    Vingard E, Alfredsson L, Goldie I, Hogstedt C.Occupation and osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee: a register-based cohort study.Int J Epidemiol1991;20:102531.
  • 20
    Schouten JS, van den Ouweland FA, Valkenburg HA.A 12 year follow up study in the general population on prognostic factors of cartilage loss in osteoarthritis of the knee.Ann Rheum Dis1992;51:9327.
  • 21
    McWilliams DF, Leeb BF, Muthuri SG, Doherty M, Zhang W.Occupational risk factors for osteoarthritis of the knee: a meta-analysis.Osteoarthritis Cartilage2011;19:82939.
  • 22
    Ratzlaff CR.Lifetime physical activity and osteoarthritis.Vancouver:University of British Columbia;2011.
  • 23
    Fransen M, Agaliotis M, Bridgett L, Mackey MG.Hip and knee pain: role of occupational factors.Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol2011;25:81101.
  • 24
    Allen KD, Chen JC, Callahan LF, Golightly YM, Helmick CG, Renner JB, et al.Associations of occupational tasks with knee and hip osteoarthritis: the Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project.J Rheumatol2010;37:84250.
  • 25
    Anderson JJ, Felson DT.Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I): evidence for an association with overweight, race, and physical demands of work.Am J Epidemiol1988;128:17989.
  • 26
    Dolan SH, Williams DP, Ainsworth BE, Shaw JM.Development and reproducibility of the bone loading history questionnaire.Med Sci Sports Exerc2006;38:112131.
  • 27
    Falkner KL, Trevisan M, McCann SE.Reliability of recall of physical activity in the distant past.Am J Epidemiol1999;150:195205.
  • 28
    Shah D.Healthy worker effect phenomenon.Indian J Occup Envion Med2009;13:779.
  • 29
    Hinman RS, Crossley KM.Patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: an important subgroup of knee osteoarthritis.Rheumatology (Oxford)2007;46:105762.
  • 30
    Dahlkvist NJ, Mayo P, Seedhom BB.Forces during squatting and rising from a deep squat.Eng Med1982;11:6976.
  • 31
    Besier TF, Gold GE, Beaupre GS, Delp SL.A modeling framework to estimate patellofemoral joint cartilage stress in vivo.Med Sci Sports Exerc2005;37:192430.
  • 32
    Amin S, Goggins J, Niu J, Guermazi A, Grigoryan M, Hunter DJ, et al.Occupation-related squatting, kneeling, and heavy lifting and the knee joint: a magnetic resonance imaging-based study in men.J Rheumatol2008;35:16459.
  • 33
    Rogers LQ, Macera CA, Hootman JM, Ainsworth BE, Blairi SN.The association between joint stress from physical activity and self-reported osteoarthritis: an analysis of the Cooper Clinic data.Osteoarthritis Cartilage2002;10:61722.
  • 34
    Palmer KT.Occupational activities and osteoarthritis of the knee.Br Med Bull2012;102:14770.
  • 35
    Disler DG, McCauley TR, Kelman CG, Fuchs MD, Ratner LM, Wirth CR, et al.Fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging of hyaline cartilage defects in the knee: comparison with standard MR imaging and arthroscopy.AJR Am J Roentgenol1996;167:12732.