• 1
    Mukerjee D, St George D, Coleiro B, Knight C, Denton CP, Davar J, et al.Prevalence and outcome in systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension: application of a registry approach.Ann Rheum Dis2003;62:108893.
  • 2
    Hachulla E, Gressin V, Guillevin L, Carpentier P, Diot E, Sibilia J, et al.Early detection of pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis: a French nationwide prospective multicenter study.Arthritis Rheum2005;52:3792800.
  • 3
    Steen VD, Medsger TA.Changes in causes of death in systemic sclerosis, 1972-2002.Ann Rheum Dis2007;66:9404.
  • 4
    Bossone E, Duong-Wagner TH, Paciocco G, Oral H, Ricciardi M, Bach DS, et al.Echocardiographic features of primary pulmonary hypertension.J Am Soc Echocardiogr1999;12:65562.
  • 5
    Murata I, Takenaka K, Yoshinoya S, Kikuchi K, Kiuchi T, Tanigawa T, et al.Clinical evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis and related disorders: a Doppler echocardiographic study of 135 Japanese patients.Chest1997;111:3643.
  • 6
    Brecker SJ, Gibbs JS, Fox KM, Yacoub MH, Gibson DG.Comparison of Doppler derived haemodynamic variables and simultaneous high fidelity pressure measurements in severe pulmonary hypertension.Br Heart J1994;72:3849.
  • 7
    Woods PR, Frantz RP, Taylor BJ, Olson TP, Johnson BD.The usefulness of submaximal exercise gas exchange to define pulmonary arterial hypertension.J Heart Lung Transplant2011;30:113342.
  • 8
    Miller AD, Woods PR, Olsen TP, Hulsebus ML, O'Malley KA, MacCarter D, et al.Validation of a simplified, portable cardiopulmonary gas exchange system for submaximal exercise testing.Open Sports Med J2010;4:3440.
  • 9
    Matsumoto A, Itoh H, Eto Y, Kobayashi T, Kato M, Omata M, et al.End-tidal CO2 pressure decreases during exercise in cardiac patients: association with severity of heart failure and cardiac output reserve.J Am Coll Cardiol2000;36:2429.
  • 10
    Yasunobu Y, Oudiz RJ, Sun XG, Hansen JE, Wasserman K.End-tidal PCO2 abnormality and exercise limitation in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension.Chest2005;127:163746.
  • 11
    Dumitrescu D, Oudiz RJ, Karpouzas G, Hovanesyan A, Jayasinghe A, Hansen JE, et al.Developing pulmonary vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis, detected with non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing.PloS One2010;5:e14293.
  • 12
    Johnson SR, Granton JT.Pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus.Eur Respir Rev2011;20:27786.
  • 13
    Arena R, MacCarter D, Olson TP, Lalande S, Ceridon ML, Olson LJ, et al.Ventilatory expired gas at constant-rate low-intensity exercise predicts adverse events and is related to neurohormonal markers in patients with heart failure.J Card Fail2009;15:4828.