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Injectable Tumor Necrosis Factor α Inhibitors and Outpatient Antimicrobial Use in Children With Rheumatic Diseases: Analyses of Prescription Claims From a Pharmacy Benefit Manager Database†
Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013
Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology
Arthritis Care & Research
Volume 65, Issue 11, pages 1880–1884, November 2013
How to Cite
Ringold, S., Grant, S., Girdish, C., Wallace, C. A. and Sullivan, S. D. (2013), Injectable Tumor Necrosis Factor α Inhibitors and Outpatient Antimicrobial Use in Children With Rheumatic Diseases: Analyses of Prescription Claims From a Pharmacy Benefit Manager Database. Arthritis Care Res, 65: 1880–1884. doi: 10.1002/acr.22053
The content contained herein is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
- Issue published online: 28 OCT 2013
- Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 10 JUN 2013 09:18AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 MAY 2013
- Manuscript Received: 10 JAN 2013
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Grant Number: K12HS019482
To estimate the incidence and rate of outpatient antibiotic and antiviral medication use among children receiving methotrexate and/or an injectable tumor necrosis factor α (iTNFα) inhibitor (etanercept and/or adalimumab) and to compare these rates with those of a control population.
Data were obtained from a pharmacy benefit manager (PBM) database. Children were included if they had ≥1 prescription claim for an iTNFα inhibitor or methotrexate prescribed by a pediatric or adult rheumatologist between 2008 and 2010 and if they were age <18 years at the time of the claim. A control cohort of randomly selected children was generated from the PBM database. Poisson regression was used to compare antimicrobial rate ratios (RRs). Incidence rates and RRs were adjusted for age, sex, and prednisone exposure.
In total, 4,312 children were included. The adjusted RRs for antibiotic prescriptions among children receiving methotrexate monotherapy or iTNFα inhibitor and methotrexate combination therapy compared with the control cohort were 2.18 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.92–2.47) and 2.12 (95% CI 1.79–2.50), respectively. The adjusted RRs for antiviral prescriptions among children receiving methotrexate monotherapy or iTNFα inhibitor and methotrexate combination therapy compared with the control cohort were 3.67 (95% CI 1.98–6.78) and 4.34 (95% CI 1.86–10.14), respectively. The RRs for the iTNFα inhibitor group were similar in magnitude. There was no significant difference in RRs between the medication exposure categories for either antibiotic or antiviral prescriptions.
Children receiving methotrexate and/or an iTNFα inhibitor had higher rates of antibiotic and antiviral use compared with the control cohort. Data sets with additional patient-level and disease-specific data are required to assess this association in more detail.