• 1
    Kalichman L, Hernandez-Molina G.Hand osteoarthritis: an epidemiological perspective. Semin Arthritis Rheum2010;39:46576.
  • 2
    Wilder FV, Barrett JP, Farina EJ.Joint-specific prevalence of osteoarthritis of the hand. Osteoarthritis Cartilage2006;14:9537.
  • 3
    Sodha S, Ring D, Zurakowski D, Jupiter JB.Prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the trapeziometacarpal joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am2005;87:26148.
  • 4
    Kjeken I, Dagfinrud H, Slatkowsky-Christensen B, Mowinckel P, Uhlig T, Kvien TK, et al.Activity limitations and participation restrictions in women with hand osteoarthritis: patients' descriptions and associations between dimensions of functioning. Ann Rheum Dis2005;64:16338.
  • 5
    Hudak PL, Amadio PC, Bombardier C, for the Upper Extremity Collaborative Group (UECG).Development of an upper extremity outcome measure: the DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) [corrected]. Am J Ind Med1996;29:6028.
  • 6
    Marks M, Schoones J, Kolling C, Herren D, Goldhahn J, Vliet Vlieland T. Outcome measures and their measurement properties for trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis: a systematic literature review. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2013;38:82238.
  • 7
    Chung KC, Pillsbury MS, Walters MR, Hayward RA.Reliability and validity testing of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. J Hand Surg Am1998;23:57587.
  • 8
    Shauver MJ, Chung KC.The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire after 15 years of field trial. Plast Reconstr Surg2013;131:779e87e.
  • 9
    Van der Giesen FJ, Nelissen RG, Arendzen JH, de Jong Z, Wolterbeek R, Vliet Vlieland TP.Responsiveness of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire: Dutch language version in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil2008;89:11216.
  • 10
    Oksuz C, Akel BS, Oskay D, Leblebicioglu G, Hayran KM.Cross-cultural adaptation, validation, and reliability process of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire in a Turkish population. J Hand Surg Am2011;36:48692.
  • 11
    Knobloch K, Kuehn M, Papst S, Kraemer R, Vogt PM.German standardized translation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire for patient-related outcome measurement in Dupuytren's disease. Plast Reconstr Surg2011;128:39e40e.
  • 12
    Roh YH, Yang BK, Noh JH, Baek GH, Song CH, Gong HS.Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of the Michigan Hand Questionnaire. J Hand Surg Am2011;36:1497503.
  • 13
    Pinho N, Rafael A, Cardoso A, Nardi AE.Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. J Bras Psiquiatr2011;60:99110.
  • 14
    Zyluk A, Piotuch B.Use of questionnaires in outcome measurement in hand surgery. Chirurgia Narzadow Ruchu I Ortopedia Polska2009;74:193201. In Polish.
  • 15
    Huijsmans R, Sluiter H, Aufdemkampe G.Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. Dutch language version: een vragenlijst voor patienten met handfunctieproblemen. Fysiopraxis2001;9:3841. In Dutch.
  • 16
    Waljee JF, Kim HM, Burns PB, Chung KC.Development of a brief, 12-item version of the Michigan Hand Questionnaire. Plast Reconstr Surg2011;128:20820.
  • 17
    Knobloch K, Kraemer R, Papst S, Sorg H, Vogt PM.German version of the brief Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire: implications for early quality of life following collagenase injection in Dupuytren's contracture. Plast Reconstr Surg2012;129:886e7e.
  • 18
    Waljee JF, Chung KC, Kim HM, Burns PB, Burke FD, Wilgis EF, et al.Validity and responsiveness of the Michigan Hand Questionnaire in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter, international study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)2010;62:156977.
  • 19
    Shauver MJ, Chung KC.The minimal clinically important difference of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. J Hand Surg Am2009;34:50914.
  • 20
    Massy-Westropp N, Krishnan J, Ahern M.Comparing the AUSCAN Osteoarthritis Hand Index, Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire, and Sequential Occupational Dexterity Assessment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol2004;31:19962001.
  • 21
    McMillan CR, Binhammer PA.Which outcome measure is the best? Evaluating responsiveness of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Questionnaire, the Michigan Hand Questionnaire and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale following hand and wrist surgery. Hand (N Y)2009;4:3118.
  • 22
    Kotsis SV, Chung KC.Responsiveness of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire in carpal tunnel surgery. J Hand Surg Am2005;30:816.
  • 23
    Kotsis SV, Lau FH, Chung KC.Responsiveness of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire and physical measurements in outcome studies of distal radius fracture treatment. J Hand Surg Am2007;32:8490.
  • 24
    Horng YS, Lin MC, Feng CT, Huang CH, Wu HC, Wang JD.Responsiveness of the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire in patients with hand injury. J Hand Surg Am2010;35:4306.
  • 25
    Chung KC, Hamill JB, Walters MR, Hayward RA.The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ): assessment of responsiveness to clinical change. Ann Plast Surg1999;42:61922.
  • 26
    Van Rijn J, Gosens T.A cemented surface replacement prosthesis in the basal thumb joint. J Hand Surg Am2010;35:5729.
  • 27
    Burke NG, Walsh J, Moran CJ, Cousins G, Molony D, Kelly EP.Patient-reported outcomes after Silastic replacement of the trapezium for osteoarthritis. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2012;37:2638.
  • 28
    University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Surgery. Scoring the MHQ. 2013. URL:
  • 29
    Offenbaecher M, Ewert T, Sangha O, Stucki G.Validation of a German version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH-G). Z Rheumatol2003;62:16877.
  • 30
    Ware JE, Kosinski M, Gandek B, Sundaram M, Bjorner JB, Turner-Bowker DM, et al.User's manual for the SF-12v2 Health Survey. Lincoln (RI): QualityMetric Incorporated; 2010.
  • 31
    Angst F, John M, Goldhahn J, Herren DB, Pap G, Aeschlimann A, et al.Comprehensive assessment of clinical outcome and quality of life after resection interposition arthroplasty of the thumb saddle joint. Arthritis Rheum2005;53:20513.
  • 32
    Angst F, Goldhahn J, Drerup S, Flury M, Schwyzer HK, Simmen BR.How sharp is the short QuickDASH? A refined content and validity analysis of the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in the strata of symptoms and function and specific joint conditions. Qual Life Res2009;18:104351.
  • 33
    John M, Angst F, Awiszus F, Pap G, Macdermid JC, Simmen BR.The patient-rated wrist evaluation (PRWE): cross-cultural adaptation into German and evaluation of its psychometric properties. Clin Exp Rheumatol2008;26:104758.
  • 34
    MacDermid JC, Wessel J, Humphrey R, Ross D, Roth JH.Validity of self-report measures of pain and disability for persons who have undergone arthroplasty for osteoarthritis of the carpometacarpal joint of the hand. Osteoarthritis Cartilage2007;15:52430.
  • 35
    Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, Alonso J, Stratford PW, Knol DL, et al.The COSMIN study reached international consensus on taxonomy, terminology, and definitions of measurement properties for health-related patient-reported outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol2010;63:73745.
  • 36
    De Vet HC, Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL.Measurement in medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.
  • 37
    Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Knol DL, Stratford PW, Alonso J, Patrick DL, et al.The COSMIN checklist for evaluating the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties: a clarification of its content. BMC Med Res Methodol2010;10:22.
  • 38
    Mokkink LB. COSMIN checklist. 2012. URL:
  • 39
    Angst F.The new COSMIN guidelines confront traditional concepts of responsiveness. BMC Med Res Methodol2011;11:152.
  • 40
    Cohen J.A power primer. Psychol Bull1992;112:1559.
  • 41
    De Vet HC, Terluin B, Knol DL, Roorda LD, Mokkink LB, Ostelo RW, et al.Three ways to quantify uncertainty in individually applied ”minimally important change” values. J Clin Epidemiol2010;63:3745.
  • 42
    Fan J, Upadhye S, Worster A.Understanding receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. CJEM2006;8:1920.
  • 43
    Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al.Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol2007;60:3442.
  • 44
    Michon M, Maheu E, Berenbaum F.Assessing health-related quality of life in hand osteoarthritis: a literature review. Ann Rheum Dis2011;70:9218.
  • 45
    Revicki D, Hays RD, Cella D, Sloan J.Recommended methods for determining responsiveness and minimally important differences for patient-reported outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol2008;61:1029.
  • 46
    Dias JJ, Rajan RA, Thompson JR. Which questionnaire is best? The reliability, validity and ease of use of the Patient Evaluation Measure, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and the Michigan Hand Outcome Measure. J Hand Surg Eur Vol 2008;33:917.
  • 47
    University of Michigan, Medical School, Department of Surgery. BriefMHQ. 2013. URL:
  • 48
    Myers HL, Thomas E, Hay EM, Dziedzic KS.Hand assessment in older adults with musculoskeletal hand problems: a reliability study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord2011;12:3.
  • 49
    Mathiowetz V, Weber K, Volland G, Kashman N.Reliability and validity of grip and pinch strength evaluations. J Hand Surg Am1984;9:2226.
  • 50
    Bellamy N, Campbell J, Haraoui B, Buchbinder R, Hobby K, Roth JH, et al.Dimensionality and clinical importance of pain and disability in hand osteoarthritis: development of the Australian/Canadian (AUSCAN) Osteoarthritis Hand Index. Osteoarthritis Cartilage2002;10:85562.
  • 51
    MacDermid JC.Development of a scale for patient rating of wrist pain and disability. J Hand Ther1996;9:17883.
  • 52
    Macey AC, Burke FD, Abbott K, Barton NJ, Bradbury E, Bradley A, et al, for the British Society for Surgery of the Hand.Outcomes of hand surgery. J Hand Surg Br1995;20:84155.