• 1
    Parks CG, Cooper GS. Occupational exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of the evidence and exposure assessment methods in population- and clinic-based studies. Lupus 2006;15:72836.
  • 2
    Cooper GS, Dooley MA, Treadwell EL, St. Clair EW, Parks CG, Gilkeson GS. Hormonal, environmental, and infectious risk factors for developing systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1998;41:171424.
  • 3
    Montanaro A, Bardana EJ Jr.Dietary amino acid-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1991;17:32332.
  • 4
    Costenbader KH, Kim DJ, Peerzada J, Lockman S, Nobles-Knight D, Petri M, et al. Cigarette smoking and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:84957.
  • 5
    Jarvinen P, Aho K. Twin studies in rheumatic diseases. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1994;24:1928.
  • 6
    Deapen D, Escalante A, Weinrib L, Horwitz D, Bachman B, Roy-Burman P, et al. A revised estimate of twin concordance in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1992;35:3118.
  • 7
    Tsao BP. Update on human systemic lupus erythematosus genetics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2004;16:51321.
  • 8
    David SP. Systemic lupus erythematosus: epidemiology, pathology, and pathogenesis. In: Klippel JH, Stone JH, Crofford LJ, White PH, editors.Primer on the rheumatic diseases.New York:Springer;2008. p.31926.
  • 9
    Wang J, Pan HF, Ye DQ, Su H, Li XP. Moderate alcohol drinking might be protective for systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol 2008;27:155763.
  • 10
    Kiyohara C, Washio M, Horiuchi T, Asami T, Ide S, Atsumi T, et al. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: a case-control study in a Japanese population. J Rheumatol 2012;39:136370.
  • 11
    Zampelas A, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C. Associations between coffee consumption and inflammatory markers in healthy persons: the ATTICA study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:8627.
  • 12
    Hein DW. Acetylator genotype and arylamine-induced carcinogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;948:3766.
  • 13
    Perry HM Jr, Tan EM, Carmody S, Sakamoto A. Relationship of acetyl transferase activity to antinuclear antibodies and toxic symptoms in hypertensive patients treated with hydralazine. J Lab Clin Med 1970;76:11425.
  • 14
    Woosley RL, Drayer DE, Reidenberg MM, Nies AS, Carr K, Oates JA. Effect of acetylator phenotype on the rate at which procainamide induces antinuclear antibodies and the lupus syndrome. N Engl J Med 1978;298:11579.
  • 15
    Evans D. N-acetyltransferases. In: Kalow W, editor.Pharmacogenetics of drug metabolism.New York:Pergamon Press;1992. p.95197.
  • 16
    Hein DW, Doll MA, Fretland AJ, Leff MA, Webb SJ, Xiao GH, et al. Molecular genetics and epidemiology of the NAT1 and NAT2 acetylation polymorphisms. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:2942.
  • 17
    Deguchi T. Sequences and expression of alleles of polymorphic arylamine N-acetyltransferase of human liver. J Biol Chem 1992;267:181407.
  • 18
    Okumura K, Kita T, Chikazawa S, Komada F, Iwakawa S, Tanigawara Y. Genotyping of N-acetylation polymorphism and correlation with procainamide metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;61:50917.
  • 19
    Kita T, Tanigawara Y, Chikazawa S, Hatanaka H, Sakaeda T, Komada F, et al. N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype correlated with isoniazid acetylation in Japanese tuberculous patients. Biol Pharm Bull 2001;24:5449.
  • 20
    Tanigawara Y, Kita T, Aoyama N, Gobara M, Komada F, Sakai T, et al. N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype-related sulfapyridine acetylation and its adverse events. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:105862.
  • 21
    Kiyohara C, Washio M, Horiuchi T, Tada Y, Asami T, Ide S, et al. Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population. Lupus 2009;18:6308.
  • 22
    Heliovaara M, Aho K, Knekt P, Impivaara O, Reunanen A, Aromaa A. Coffee consumption, rheumatoid factor, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:6315.
  • 23
    Mikuls TR, Cerhan JR, Criswell LA, Merlino L, Mudano AS, Burma M, et al. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women's Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:8391.
  • 24
    Karlson EW, Mandl LA, Aweh GN, Grodstein F. Coffee consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:305560.
  • 25
    Walitt B, Pettinger M, Parks C, Hunt J, Howard B, Collins C. Coffee and tea consumption and method of coffee preparation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus in postmenopausal women [abstract].Ann Rheum Dis 2010;69:350.
  • 26
    Horrigan LA, Kelly JP, Connor TJ. Immunomodulatory effects of caffeine: friend or foe?Pharmacol Ther 2006;111:87792.
  • 27
    Dean GS, Tyrrell-Price J, Crawley E, Isenberg DA. Cytokines and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 2000;59:24351.
  • 28
    Mikhailidis DP, Barradas MA, Mikhailidis AM, Magnani H, Dandona P. Comparison of the effect of a conventional heparin and a low molecular weight heparinoid on platelet function. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1984;17:438.
  • 29
    Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:12717.
  • 30
    Washio M, Horiuchi T, Kiyohara C, Kodama H, Tada Y, Asami T, et al. Smoking, drinking, sleeping habits, and other lifestyle factors and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in Japanese females: findings from the KYSS study. Mod Rheumatol 2006;16:14350.
  • 31
    Kiyohara C, Washio M, Horiuchi T, Takahashi H, Tada Y, Kobashi G, et al. Dietary patterns and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: the Kyushu Sapporo SLE (KYSS) Study. Int Med J. In press.
  • 32
    Marshall SW. Power for tests of interaction: effect of raising the Type I error rate [abstract].Epidemiol Perspect Innov 2007;4:4.
  • 33
    Riegelman RK.Interpretation. Studying a study and testing a test: how to read the medical evidence. 5th ed.Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2004. p.507.
  • 34
    Curatolo PW, Robertson D. The health consequences of caffeine. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:64153.
  • 35
    Standard tables of food composition in Japan, 2010.Tokyo:Resources Council of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan;2010.
  • 36
    Matsunaga K, Klein TW, Friedman H, Yamamoto Y. Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages inhibited by selective immunomodulatory effects on cytokine formation by epigallocatechin gallate, a major form of tea catechins. Infect Immun 2001;69:394753.
  • 37
    Matsunaga K, Klein TW, Friedman H, Yamamoto Y. Epigallocatechin gallate, a potential immunomodulatory agent of tea components, diminishes cigarette smoke condensate-induced suppression of anti-Legionella pneumophila activity and cytokine responses of alveolar macrophages. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002;9:86471.
  • 38
    Wu AH, Yu MC. Tea, hormone-related cancers and endogenous hormone levels. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50:1609.
  • 39
    Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY. Antioxidant activity of black tea vs. green tea [letter].J Nutr 2002;132:785.
  • 40
    Kimura R, Murata T. Influence of alkylamides of glutamic acid and related compounds on the central nervous system. II. Syntheses of amides of gutamic acid and related compounds, and their effects on the central nervous system. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1971;19:13017.
  • 41
    Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, Okamura N, Okai O. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in the rat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2000;64:28793.
  • 42
    Yoto A, Motoki M, Murao S, Yokogoshi H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J Physiol Anthropol 2012;31:28.
  • 43
    Haqqi TM, Anthony DD, Gupta S, Ahmad N, Lee MS, Kumar GK, et al. Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:45249.
  • 44
    Aktas O, Prozorovski T, Smorodchenko A, Savaskan NE, Lauster R, Kloetzel PM, et al. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate mediates T cellular NF-κ B inhibition and exerts neuroprotection in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 2004;173:5794800.
  • 45
    Wang J, Kay AB, Fletcher J, Formica MK, McAlindon TE. Alcohol consumption is not protective for systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis 2009;68:3458.
  • 46
    Doll R, Peto R, Hall E, Wheatley K, Gray R. Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 1994;309:9118.
  • 47
    Imhof A, Froehlich M, Brenner H, Boeing H, Pepys MB, Koenig W. Effect of alcohol consumption on systemic markers of inflammation. Lancet 2001;357:7637.
  • 48
    Ripley BJ, Goncalves B, Isenberg DA, Latchman DS, Rahman A. Raised levels of interleukin 6 in systemic lupus erythematosus correlate with anaemia. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:84953.
  • 49
    McCarty MF. Interleukin-6 as a central mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with chronic inflammation, smoking, diabetes, and visceral obesity: down-regulation with essential fatty acids, ethanol and pentoxifylline. Med Hypotheses 1999;52:46577.
  • 50
    Resources Council for Science and Technology. Ministry of Education C, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.Standard tables of food composition in Japan. 5th ed.Tokyo:National Printing Bureau;2005.
  • 51
    Cho KH, Kim HJ, Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Vaziri ND. Niacin ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, proteinuria, and hypertension in rats with chronic renal failure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009;297:F10613.
  • 52
    Wirleitner B, Schroecksnadel K, Winkler C, Schennach H, Fuchs D. Resveratrol suppresses interferon-γ-induced biochemical pathways in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Immunol Lett 2005;100:15963.
  • 53
    Chen C, Ricks S, Doody DR, Fitzgibbons ED, Porter PL, Schwartz SM. N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and oral squamous cell cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 2001;22:19939.
  • 54
    Lu CM, Chung MC, Huang CH, Ko YC. Interaction effect in bladder cancer between N-acetyltransferase 2 genotype and alcohol drinking. Urol Int 2005;75:3604.
  • 55
    Hein DW. Molecular genetics and function of NAT1 and NAT2: role in aromatic amine metabolism and carcinogenesis [review].Mutat Res 2002;506–7,65–77.
  • 56
    Rehm J, Kanteres F, Lachenmeier DW. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010;29:42636.
  • 57
    Hilton ME. A comparison of a prospective diary and two summary recall techniques for recording alcohol consumption. Br J Addict 1989;84:108592.
  • 58
    Midanik LT. Perspectives on the validity of self-reported alcohol use. Br J Addict 1989;84:141923.
  • 59
    Mannisto S, Virtanen M, Mikkonen T, Pietinen P. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in a case-control study on breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1996;49:4019.
  • 60
    Ferraroni M, Tavani A, Decarli A, Franceschi S, Parpinel M, Negri E, et al. Reproducibility and validity of coffee and tea consumption in Italy. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:67480.
  • 61
    Byers TE, Rosenthal RI, Marshall JR, Rzepka TF, Cummings KM, Graham S. Dietary history from the distant past: a methodological study. Nutr Cancer 1983;5:6977.
  • 62
    Rohan TE, Potter JD. Retrospective assessment of dietary intake. Am J Epidemiol 1984;120:87687.
  • 63
    Byers T, Marshall J, Anthony E, Fiedler R, Zielezny M. The reliability of dietary history from the distant past. Am J Epidemiol 1987;125:9991011.
  • 64
    Giovannucci E, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Rosner BA, Longnecker MP, et al. Recall and selection bias in reporting past alcohol consumption among breast cancer cases. Cancer Causes Control 1993;4:4418.
  • 65
    Willet W, editor.Nutritional epidemiology. 2nd ed.New York:Oxford University Press;1998.
  • 66
    Geneletti S, Richardson S, Best N. Adjusting for selection bias in retrospective, case-control studies. Biostatistics 2009;10:1731.