• Architectural Association (AA);
  • Jeffrey Kipnis;
  • Don Bates;
  • ‘Towards a New Architecture’;
  • AD Folding in Architecture;
  • Postmodern practice;
  • Roberto Mangabeira Unger;
  • DeFormation;
  • InFormation;
  • ‘grafting’;
  • Jasper Johns ‘crosshatch’;
  • Johan Bettum, Michael Hensel, Chul Kong and Nopadol Limwatankul, A Thousand Grounds: Tectonic Landscape – Spreebogen, A New Governmental Centre for Berlin Urban Design Study, Graduate Design Programme (tutors: Jeffrey Kipnis and Don Bates), Architectural Association, London, 1992–3;
  • ‘graft’;
  • Amna Emir;
  • Changliu Grouing Area Masterplan, Haikou, Hanian Island, China, Graduate Design Programme;
  • Bahram Shirdel;
  • Chris Lee, Gallery Project for Spitalfields Market, London, 1995–6;
  • Ben van Berkel;
  • Nasrin Kalbasi and Dimitrios Tsigos, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2001–2;
  • Ludo Grooteman;
  • flocks and swarms;
  • FOA's Yokohama Ferry Terminal (1994);
  • Le Corbusier's Villa Savoye diagram (1928–9);
  • Zaha Hadid;
  • Kartal in Istanbul (2006);
  • Herzog & de Meuron;
  • Signal Box;
  • environmental or energetic gradients;
  • parallel bars;
  • Daniel Coll i Capdevila, Strip-Morphologies;
  • Achim Menges;
  • Dimitrios Tsigos and Hani Fallaha, Temporal Housing Study, The Netherlands, 2002–03;
  • Defne Sunguroǧlu Hensel with Øyvind Andreassen and Emma MM Wingstedt, Extended Threshold Research, Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), Kjeller, Norway, 2010


Michael Hensel draws a parallel between the present and a moment in the early 1990s when typology seemed poised to come to the fore. He highlights how despite a promising start this interest slipped away and was supplanted by an obsession with topography and highly complex surfaces, leading to a primacy of the individual built form over the urban.