• St Peter's;
  • Gianlorenzo Bernini;
  • Sagrada Família;
  • Antoni Gaudí;
  • Eladio Dieste;
  • Atlántida Church;
  • Pier Luigi Nervi;
  • Palazzetto dello Sport;
  • Eero Saarinen;
  • JFK;
  • Dulles;
  • form-generation;
  • John Frazer;
  • Karl Chu;
  • spatial logic;
  • ‘Pre-rationalisation’, Zaha Hadid Architects, Galaxy SOHO, Beijing;
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM);
  • Foster + Partners;
  • Kohn Pedersen Fox (KPF);
  • Wilkinson Eyre Architects;
  • Gehry Partners;
  • developable surface (CGauss = 0);
  • Maya;
  • constructive solid geometry (CSG);
  • ‘co-rationalisation’, CATIA system;
  • user-defined artificial intelligence;
  • ‘best fit’ implementation;
  • Wangjing SOHO project;
  • panel generation VB script;
  • Rhino;
  • City Life in Milan;
  • building information modelling (BIM)


Free-form geometric designs make use of continuously differentiated components that exist within a multidimensional envelope of material performance, fabrication capabilities, logistics and cost. In this article, Cristiano Ceccato explains how geometric form-rationalisation and analysis of constructability at the functional as well as the computational level form the basis for achieving advanced designs in terms of articulation of material through mass-customised industrial production. Taking examples from the current work of Zaha Hadid Architects (ZHA), he presents a necessarily evolving framework of computational design and associated practice of architecture that is attempting to close the gaps between computational design, digitally controlled manufacturing and evolving mechanisms of contemporary construction and project delivery. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.