For the fatigue assessment of the nodular cast iron ASTM 80-55-06 (EN-GJS-600) stress-controlled fatigue tests were performed at testing frequencies of f = 5 and 150 Hz. Mechanical (f = 5 Hz), temperature, electrical resistance, and frequency (f = 150 Hz) measurements during cyclic loading provide the possibility to get detailed information about fatigue processes like cyclic hardening or graphite-matrix debonding. Temperature measurements are well suitable to evaluate the influence of the testing frequency on the cyclic deformation behavior. Increasing testing frequencies result in higher values of the change in temperature caused by the increasing heat dissipation per second. On the basis of the measured data from only three fatigue tests the fatigue life calculation method “PHYBALLIT” (Load Increase Tests) can be applied on the investigated cast iron. Woehler (S–N) curves calculated for testing frequencies of 5 and 150 Hz yield an excellent accordance with conventionally determined ones. The application of this short-time procedure leads to enormous scientific and economic advantages.