The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the two-body wear resistance of different dental ceramics and non-precious alloys. Two-body wear tests were performed in a chewing simulator with steatite antagonists. A pin-on-block design with a vertical load of 50 N for 1.2 × 105 cycles (f = 1.6 Hz; lateral movement: 1 mm, mouth opening: 2 mm) was used for the wear test. Surface roughness Ra (SP6, Perthen-Feinprüf, G) and wear depth were determined using a 3D-Profilometer (Laserscan 3D, Willytec, G). Scanning electron microscopy (Quanta FEG 400, FEI, NL) was applied for evaluating wear performance of both, materials and antagonists. Statistics: one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). The in vitro wear test showed that the wear performance of dental materials is strongly influenced by the type of material (ceramic, zirconia, or alloy). Zirconia and alloy provided low wear in contrast to glass-ceramic systems. In contradiction to common expectations, hard zirconia and alloy systems showed even lower antagonistic wear than glass-ceramics.