A part of the work presented in this review paper was conducted within the framework of the following projects: FWF project P20709-N20, Austria; COMET Competence Centre Programme, Austria; FFG project 826989 “ProStTial”, Austria; FFG project 832040 “energy-drive,” Research Studios Austria, Austria; FFG project 830381 “fAusT,” Österreichisches Luftfahrtprogramm TAKE OFF, Austria; Styrian Materials Cluster, Austria; BMBF project O3X3530A, Germany. The support of the DESY and ESRF managements and user offices is gratefully acknowledged. We appreciate the commitment of the HZG and ESRF beam-line staff which contributed greatly to the success of the experiments performed. Research activities performed at DESY have received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 226716. Finally, we thank our project partners for many years of fruitful cooperation and our PhD students who are working in the framework of the programs listed above: Thomas Schmoelzer, Martin Schloffer, Emanuel Schwaighofer, Robert Werner, and Andrea Gaitzenauer.
Design, Processing, Microstructure, Properties, and Applications of Advanced Intermetallic TiAl Alloys†
Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012
Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Advanced Engineering Materials
Volume 15, Issue 4, pages 191–215, April 2013
How to Cite
Clemens, H. and Mayer, S. (2013), Design, Processing, Microstructure, Properties, and Applications of Advanced Intermetallic TiAl Alloys. Adv. Eng. Mater., 15: 191–215. doi: 10.1002/adem.201200231
- Issue published online: 8 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Received: 3 JUL 2012
After almost three decades of intensive fundamental research and development activities, intermetallic titanium aluminides based on the ordered γ-TiAl phase have found applications in automotive and aircraft engine industry. The advantages of this class of innovative high-temperature materials are their low density and their good strength and creep properties up to 750 °C as well as their good oxidation and burn resistance. Advanced TiAl alloys are complex multi-phase alloys which can be processed by ingot or powder metallurgy as well as precision casting methods. Each process leads to specific microstructures which can be altered and optimized by thermo-mechanical processing and/or subsequent heat treatments. The background of these heat treatments is at least twofold, i.e., concurrent increase of ductility at room temperature and creep strength at elevated temperature. This review gives a general survey of engineering γ-TiAl based alloys, but concentrates on β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloys which show excellent hot-workability and balanced mechanical properties when subjected to adapted heat treatments. The content of this paper comprises alloy design strategies, progress in processing, evolution of microstructure, mechanical properties as well as application-oriented aspects, but also shows how sophisticated ex situ and in situ methods can be employed to establish phase diagrams and to investigate the evolution of the micro- and nanostructure during hot-working and subsequent heat treatments.