Fabrication of Gradient TiO2 Nanotubes on Ti Foil by Anodization

Authors

  • Jia-Hua Ni,

    1. State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
    2. Currently a Visiting Graduate Student, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
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  • Christine J. Frandsen,

    1. Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
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  • Li-Han Chen,

    1. Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
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  • Yan-Yan Zhang,

    1. Currently a Visiting Graduate Student, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
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  • Jirapon Khamwannah,

    1. Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
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  • Guo He,

    1. State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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  • Ting-Ting Tang,

    1. Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implant, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China
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  • Sungho Jin

    Corresponding author
    1. Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA
    • Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA.
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  • The financial support by K. Iwama Endowed Chair fund, the von Liebig Grant at UC San Diego, and UC Discovery Grant No. ele08-128656/Jin is gratefully acknowledged.

Abstract

A new anodization based method is developed to fabricate a gradient in TiO2 nanotube diameters and lengths on Ti foil. In the method, the applied anodization voltage is increased step by step, while the Ti foil is immersed into an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid progressively during anodization. The gradient TiO2 nanotubes with tube diameters ranging from 55 to 105 nm and lengths ranging from 300 to 500 nm across 12 mm of Ti foil are obtained. The formation mechanism of gradient diameter and length is also discussed. The gradient structure is potentially useful as new cell instructive materials (CIMs) for guided cell movement and culture, novel drug delivery vehicles, size-selective biosensors, or other sensor applications.

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