The authors would like to acknowledge the Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research at the University of Louisville for their financial support. We would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Sheffield Hallam University's Solar Energy Group members; Kinsley Obi Echendu, Fijay Fauzi, Salim Hussein and Azlian Abdul-Manaf (Supporting Information is available online from Wiley Online Library or from the author).
Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Electrodeposited CdS Thin Films†
Article first published online: 8 APR 2014
© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Advanced Engineering Materials
Volume 16, Issue 11, pages 1351–1361, November 2014
How to Cite
Dharmadasa, R., Dharmadasa, I.M. and Druffel, T. (2014), Intense Pulsed Light Sintering of Electrodeposited CdS Thin Films. Adv. Eng. Mater., 16: 1351–1361. doi: 10.1002/adem.201400008
- Issue published online: 5 NOV 2014
- Article first published online: 8 APR 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 MAR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 7 JAN 2014
In order to manufacture market competitive solar cells, material processing methods with low capital and running costs are required. One method for achieving this goal would be to use atmospheric processing techniques with a high throughput. Here, we report the use of intense pulsed light (IPL) to process cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. IPL is an ultra-fast and facile technique for the heat treatment of materials. Pulses of light from the UV to IR wavelengths are absorbed by the material, leading to localized heating and sintering. IPL has been used to successfully make Ag and Cu electrical contacts for use in electronic circuits, however little work exists on the use of IPL in the processing of semiconductor materials. CdS was selected due to its importance in solar cell manufacturing. This n-type semiconductor has been used as a “window” material in high efficiency CdTe and Cu In(1−x)GaxSe2-based solar cells. The effect of energy input and the energy density of the pulse on the films optical, compositional and morphological properties of the films was investigated using UV–Vis spectroscopy, XRD, and SEM. IPL sintering resulted in significant improvement to the CdS crystallinity with processing times <2 mins.