Non-oxide ceramic fibers are of considerable interest due to the ability to combine the high performance, especially high temperature thermal and creep resistance, with the structural advantages of fibers including their use as reinforcements for metal (MMCs) and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In this paper the development of CVD SiC fibers and three generations of polymer derived SiC fibers over the past 50 years are discussed, illustrating the effect of fiber precursor and processing on the microstructure and physical properties of the non-oxide ceramic fibers. Additionally recent advances in research and development related to fibers from SiC and SiCN systems are presented with discussion of the current focus on reducing the costs of the fiber processing, while increasing their thermostructural stability.