There are many examples in nature where inorganic and organic phases are intricately connected to each other, both in form and function. Mineral phases impart increased mechanical strength as well as biological-, chemical- and thermal resistance to natural organic structures. This is achieved by the provision of complex hierarchical structuring to the minerals by the biological tissue. The most important biopolymer cellulose has found numerous applications from assisting ceramic processing over composite manufacturing to biotemplating of ceramics. The pairing of cellulose and silica produced materials ranging from cellulose-assisted preceramic green bodies via cellulose-silica composite aerogels to biotemplated high-surface and hierarchically nanostructured silica materials.