Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 4

Special Issue: Heat Transfer in Cellular and Composite Materials

April, 2008

Volume 10, Issue 4

Pages 267–413

Issue edited by: Andreas Öchsner

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Cover Picture: Directional Atomic Rearrangements During Transformations Between the α- and γ-Phases in Titanium Aluminides (Adv. Eng. Mater. 4/2008)

      K.-D. Liss, A. Stark, A. Bartels, H. Clemens, T. Buslaps, D. Phelan and L. A. Yeoh

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200890009

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Making movies in-situ at glowing temperatures up to 1300°C through a microscope (false color image) and from two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (movie frames) reveal the lattice correlations, gradients and intermediate structures during phase transformations in titanium aluminide. A quenched, α2-rich γ-based TiAl first approaches its equilibrium by α2[RIGHTWARDS ARROW] γ on a heating ramp, disorders α2[RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α and then evolves reversely γ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α, which are morphologically different processes.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Editorial (page 267)

      A. Öchsner

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200890007

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Contents: Adv. Eng. Mater. 4/2008 (pages 269–273)

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200890008

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Fracture of Ceramics (pages 275–298)

      R. Danzer, T. Lube, P. Supancic and R. Damani

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700347

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper reviews the current state of art of the fracture of brittle ceramic materials. Typical loading situations (thermal shock, contact damage) are analysed and the resulting fracture modes are discussed. In focus of the paper are the brittle fracture and the resulting probabilistic aspects. The delayed failure of brittle materials (sub critical crack growth and cyclic fatigue) is also discussed.

    2. Colours and Metallic Sheen in Beetle Shells — A Biomimetic Search for Material Structuring Principles Causing Light Interference (pages 299–314)

      T. Lenau and M. Barfoed

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present paper presents a cross disciplinary biomimetic review of research results that explain the materials and nanostructure in beetle shells and the mechanisms that generate them. The paper also presents a review of existing applications with structural colours obtained by nano-structured surfaces and describes the goals for further research required in order to achieve industrially manufactured beetle-like surfaces with properties such as sustainability, aesthetics, insulation, durability etc.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Simulation of Deformation, Damage and Residual Stresses in Arterial Walls (pages 315–321)

      D. Balzani

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A variety of suitable material models exist for the description of deformations in the physiological domain in arterial walls. In addition there are approaches to model residual stresses and anisotropic damage due to supra-physiological deformations. In this contribution we propose an extended damage model and provide numerical results, where the distribution of damage due to overstretching athero-sclerotic arteries is shown.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Conductive Heat Transfer in Metallic/Ceramic Open-Cell Foams (pages 323–337)

      R. Coquard, M. Loretz and D. Baillis

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700331

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study is interested in the heat conduction in porous metallic/ceramic foams characterized by their complex morphology and the large difference between the thermal conductivities of the fluid and solid phases. We have developed two numerical simulations of the heat conduction in a 3-D two-phase material based on the Finite Element Method and on the Lattice-Boltzmann Method. The foam microstructure is modeled by various polyhedral open cells formed by solid struts with different shapes. The accordance between the results of the two numerical methods is excellent. The simulations allow to investigate theoretically the influence of the structural parameters on the magnitude of heat conduction.

    2. Study of Highly Conductive Graphite Foams in Thermal Management Applications (pages 338–345)

      K. C. Leong and L. W. Jin

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper reports experimental results for forced convection heat transfer in microcellular graphite foams of high thermal conductivity. The graphite foam heat sinks were fabricated into different structures and compared with conventional aluminum heat sinks of the same configurations. The results show that better heat transfer performance is obtained by graphite foam heat sinks as compared to the solid aluminum heat sinks of different configurations. An analysis of the structure effect of graphite foams on convective heat transfer indicates that the better performance of graphite foams is due to its internal porous structure. The advantage of isotropic thermal properties of graphite foams combined with open cell structure lends itself to novel designs in electronic cooling applications.

    3. Emission Characteristics of Isothermal Open–Cellular Porous Materials at High Temperatures (pages 346–351)

      B. Krittacom and K. Kamiuto

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spectral or total normal emittances of isothermal open-cellular porous plates were evaluated theoretically by solving the equation of transfer and obtained results were compared with available experimental data. The extinction coefficient, the albedo and the asymmetry factor of a scattering phase function appearing in the equation of transfer as parameters were predicted by Kamiuto's radiative property model. A comparison between theoretical predictions and available spectral or total emittance data for three kinds of open-cellular porous plate reported in literature shows acceptable agreements within experimental uncertainty, and thus the present transfer-theoretical approach is effective in predicting the emission characteristics of open-cellular porous plates.

    4. Analytical Modelling of the Radiative Properties of Metallic Foams: Contribution of X-Ray Tomography (pages 352–360)

      M. Loretz, E. Maire and D. Baillis

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700334

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two metallic foams exhibiting a similar porosity but different cell sizes have been characterized using X-ray tomography. The images have been processed and analysed to retrieve the morphological properties required for the calculation of the radiative properties such as the extinction coefficient. The multiple possibilities of using the X-ray tomography method rather than conventional optical methods like SEM have been quantified. The extinction coefficient has then been determined from two approaches. First, the resulting morphological properties have been used as the input data of the conventional independent scattering theory. A special emphasis is put on the determination of morphological properties and their influence on the results. In the second approach, an original method is also proposed in order to determine the extinction coefficient of highly porous open cell metal foams, from the tomographic images and without any calculation or hypothesis. Results show a good agreement with the extinction coefficient obtained from experimental measurements. Our novel method enables to reduce uncertainties considerably.

    5. Recent Advances in the Prediction of the Thermal Properties of Syntactic Metallic Hollow Sphere Structures (pages 361–365)

      T. Fiedler, A. Öchsner, I. V. Belova and G. E. Murch

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700335

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metallic hollow sphere structures (MHSS) constitute a group of innovative materials which are characterised by more constant material properties compared to classical cellular metals. Their big potential lies within multifunctional applications where combinations of their properties yield symbiotic advantages. In this paper, the effective thermal conductivity of MHSS materials is investigated. Three different approaches, namely a Finite Element Method, a Lattice Monte Carlo Method and an analytical Maxwell model, are used. It is shown that all approaches complement each other and that the results are in excellent agreement.

    6. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Composites (pages 366–370)

      R. Singh and P. Sharma

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700336

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A theoretical model for predicting effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of particle filled polymer composites is developed assuming spherical inclusions arranged in a three dimensional cylindrical array. The arrangement has been divided into unit cylinders each of that contains a sphere. Green's function technique has been applied to determine the value of effective thermal conductivity. To incorporate random packing and non uniform shape of particles, a correlation term is included. It is found to dependent on volume fractions and the ratio of thermal conductivities of the constituent phases. The theoretical expression so obtained predicts values of effective thermal conductivity that are quite close to the experimental results.

    7. Thermal Conductivity of Cellular Metals Measured by the Transient Plane Sour Method (pages 371–377)

      E. Solórzano, M. A. Rodriguez-Perez and J. A. de Saja

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700337

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The thermal conductivity of a collection of cellular metals has been measured by the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method. Using this method, it has been possible to cover different volumes of selected samples and to study their in-homogeneities from their surface to their inner part. Additionally, these samples have been characterized by tomography. The density of the different volumes covered by the heat flow has been calculated from the tomographic slices and it has been related to the thermal conductivity measurements. These results have shown a similar trend to those obtained characterizing the bulk samples. With the TPS method, in combination with tomography, it has been possible to analyse the in-homogeneity of the samples as well as to characterize the thermal conductivity of a single in-homogeneous sample as a complete collection of different porosity specimens.

      Corrected by:

      Correction: Thermal Conductivity of Cellular Metals Measured by the Transient Plane Source Method

      Vol. 10, Issue 6, 596–602, Article first published online: 27 MAY 2008

    8. Ni-Mo-Cr Foams Processed by Casting Replication of Sodium Aluminate Preforms (pages 379–383)

      Y. Boonyongmaneerat and D. C. Dunand

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700300

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A Ni-23Mo-13Cr foam was created by liquid metal infiltration of a NaAlO2 preform which was subsequently dissolved in acid. The foam exhibits 53 % open porosity and has markedly higher relative strength and stiffness than prior Ni-superalloy foams produced by powder-metallurgy. This improvement is assigned to the lack of porosity in the cast struts or walls of the foam.

    9. Formation of a Multiphase Gradient Structure in a Zr–Cu–Ni–Al–O Alloy (pages 384–388)

      F. Qiu, T. Liu, Z. Jiang, P. Shen and Q. Jiang

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700304

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The phase formation upon rapid cooling by copper mould casting of a Zr-Cu-Al-Ni alloy with two different oxygen contents is reported. The nominally oxygen-free alloy produces a glassy phase, whereas the presence of 0.56 at.% oxygen results in crystallization. The crystalline phase selection is governed by the cooling rate. The microstructure and mechanical properties as well as the correlation between them in the oxygen-containing alloy were investigated.

    10. Directional Atomic Rearrangements During Transformations Between the α- and γ-Phases in Titanium Aluminides (pages 389–392)

      K.-D. Liss, A. Stark, A. Bartels, H. Clemens, T. Buslaps, D. Phelan and L. A. Yeoh

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700322

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Making movies in-situ at glowing temperatures up to 1300°C through a microscope (false color image) and from two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (movie frames) reveal the lattice correlations, gradients and intermediate structures during phase transformations in titanium aluminide. A quenched, α2-rich γ-based TiAl first approaches its equilibrium by α2[RIGHTWARDS ARROW] γ on a heating ramp, disorders α2[RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α and then evolves reversely γ [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] α, which are morphologically different processes.

    11. Performance of Thin-Film Lithium Energy Cells under Uniaxial Pressure (pages 393–399)

      T. Pereira, R. Scaffaro, Z. Guo, S. Nieh, J. Arias and H. T. Hahn

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700214

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The ability of all-solid-state thin-film lithium energy cells to withstand the uniaxial uniformly distributed surface pressure of about 550 kPa required for embedding in laminate carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) composites, and their maximum uniaxial surface pressure operational limit were investigated. Below 2 MPa, no discernible effects resulting from the applied uniaxial pressure were observed, and the energy cells performed reliably and predictably at nominal charge/discharge rates.

    12. Heat Sink Material Selection in Electronic Devices by Computational Approach (pages 400–405)

      P.-M. Geffroy, J.-D. Mathias and J.-F. Silvain

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700285

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Due to the increasing complexity and higher density of components in modern devices, reliability and lifetime are important issues in electronic packaging. Many material solutions have been suggested and tested for the reliability optimisation of electronic devices. This study presents methodical and numerical approaches for the selection of composite materials and compares the results of different actual solutions in terms of static and fatigue criteria.

  7. Industry Report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Reviews
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Industry Report
    1. Touch Study of Polymer Materials Surfaces — Description of Raspiness by a Correlation Approach Between Sensorial Analysis and Physical Measurements (pages 407–413)

      N. Sabiri, L. Leblond, J. Villoutreix, M. Lavergne, J.-D. Acétarin and G. Villoutreix

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700296

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To the various criteria such as durability and comfort, always taken into account for the purchase of a vehicle, nowadays criteria of sensory size like smell and touch are to be added. We carried out this study on evaluation of touch of plastics surfaces as these materials are largely used in automobile cockpits. The touch of these materials must first be evaluated in order to be controlled. It is the role of the panels of skilled experts, who use various tactile descriptors to characterize surfaces according to human sensitivity. The objective of this work is to undergo a statistical analysis of tactile data on the basis of precise criteria (repeatability, consistency, precision of analysis) in order to achieve a characteristic model of a given descriptor, selected for the tactile sensory analysis.

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