Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 7

Special Issue: New Material Solutions and Processes in Surface and Coating Technology

July, 2008

Volume 10, Issue 7

Pages 607–691

Issue edited by: Reimo Nickel

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Communications
    1. Cover Picture: New Material Solutions and Processes in Surface and Coating Technology (Adv. Eng. Mater. 7/2008)

      W. Kaczorowski and P. Niedzielski

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200890017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work the carbon coatings created by microwave/radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method were investigated. The deposition parameters were optimized in order to obtain homogeneous carbon coatings on such different substrates as AISI 316L steel and silicon. The MW/RF PACVD technique is promising for many different types of applications.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Communications
  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Communications
  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Communications
    1. Influence of the Residual Stress State on Cohesive Damage of PVD-Coated Carbide Cutting Tools (pages 613–616)

      B. Denkena and B. Breidenstein

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800063

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      Cohesive damage of PVD-coated carbide cutting tools always means an unscheduled production downtime and in many cases a partial damage of the workpiece. The cause for this kind of tool breakdown is ascribed by a model to a disadvantageous residual stress state of substrate and coating. The presented work observes the tool's residual stress states after single process steps during production by application of the sin2ψ method and the scattering vector method for the determination of residual stress depth distributions in order to verify the model. The obtained results prove the assumptions of the model.

    2. Microstructure Design and Tribological Properties of Cr/CrN and TiN/CrN Multilayer Films (pages 617–621)

      L. Major, J. Morgiel, J. M. Lackner, M. J. Szczerba, M. Kot and B. Major

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800054

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      Multilayer coatings on Cr/CrN and TiN/CrN basis were deposited by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique at room temperature using an industrially designed 4-beam multi-spot PLD evaporator. Coatings were built of 2, 8, 32 and 64 layers with the total thickness of 1 μm. Microstructure was studied using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM). Examinations revealed that layers were built of columnar crystallites. Mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardness and scratch-test. Results showed that 8-layered coating exhibited optimal mechanical features in examined systems.

    3. Analyses of the Performance Potential of Oxidic PVD Wear-Protection Coatings on Cutting Tools Using the Example of Crystalline γ-Al2O3 (pages 622–627)

      F. Klocke, K. Gerschwiler, S. Cordes and R. Fritsch

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800064

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      This paper focuses on the high performance potential of oxidic PVD coatings on cutting tools using the example of crystalline γ-Al2O3. The materials used during the cutting processes were the nickel-based alloy, Inconel 718, in wet-cut drilling and milling as well as a quenched and tempered steel in dry-cut milling. The conclusion that may be drawn from these analyses is that oxidic PVD coatings are characterised by outstanding wear behaviour and can contribute to a significant increase in cutting performance.

    4. Influence of RF Bias on the Deposition of CrN Studied by OES (pages 628–633)

      Z. G. Zhang, O. Rapaud, N. Bonasso, D. Mercs, C. Dong and C. Coddet

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800053

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      Chromium nitride coatings were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering techniques. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was applied to investigate the role of the different level RF substrate biases. The results show that the main chemical reaction process occurred on substrate surface and OES signal ratio I(N2)/I(Cr) can be used to predict the composition evolution. Ion bombardment effects were identified, especially in the range from 60 V to 100 V, they provide benefits to make coating denser and improve mechanical properties.

    5. Application of the Impact Test to Predict Coated Tools' Cutting Performance in Milling Inconel 718 (pages 634–639)

      K.-D. Bouzakis, N. Michailidis, S. Gerardis, G. Katirtzoglou, E. Lili, M. Pappa and R. Cremer

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800065

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      The impact test has emerged as an important method for the prediction of coatings failure, variations of this test have been applied to characterize PVD coatings under different mechanical and thermal loadings. The paper investigates the correlation between the temperature dependent impact resistance of various films deposited on cemented carbide inserts, with their cutting cutting performance in milling INCONEL 718 at various feed rates and cutting speeds.

    6. Low-Voltage Organic Transistors Fabricated Using Reverse Gravure Coating on Prepatterned Substrates (pages 640–643)

      N. J. Kaihovirta, D. Tobjörk, T. Mäkelä and R. Österbacka

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method of using a roll-to-roll technique for the fabrication of low-voltage organic transistors is presented. The organic transistor is characterized in ambient air and operates at voltages around 1 V. This work is a significant step towards manufacturing high densities of all-printed, low-voltage organic transistors.

    7. Studies on Diamond-like Carbon Coatings for the Application in Micro Actuators (pages 644–647)

      D. Paulkowski, R. Bandorf, S. Achilles, F. Pape, H. H. Gatzen and G. Bräuer

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800051

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Minimizing wear and friction in the contact area of the sliding parts of Micro-Electro- Mechanical System (MEMS) components is of utmost importance for the functionally and reliability. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on samples made of materials commonly used in active MEMS devices.

    8. Nanotechnology Applied on Hot Forging Dies (pages 648–650)

      H.-C. F. Tinius, S. S. Guerreiro and J. S. Bellodi

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800056

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      The life time of the forging dies still remains a concern and plays an important role on the costs of this process. Latest developments achieved with nanotechnology have proven that thin coatings applied on the surface of the hot forging dies bring technical and economical gains. PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) deposition processes have confirmed their potential to substantially improve the wear resistance of the hot forging dies.

    9. Morphology and Growth Process of Carbon Films Prepared by Microwave / Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted CVD (pages 651–656)

      W. Kaczorowski and P. Niedzielski

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work the carbon coatings created by microwave/radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method were investigated. The deposition parameters were optimized in order to obtain homogeneous carbon coatings on such different substrates as AISI 316L steel and silicon. The MW/RF PACVD technique is promising for many different types of applications.

    10. Well Adherent Diamond Coatings on Steel Substrates (pages 657–660)

      K. Kellermann, C. Bareiß, S. M. Rosiwal and R. F. Singer

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800060

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CVD-diamond deposition onto steel substrates has been an important aim of research projects. The combination of the unique surface properties of diamond with steel as the most common substrate material would generate a new solution for machine parts with extreme loads by friction and wear. In this work the influence of diamond deposition temperature in a Hot-Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD) process onto the adhesion of the diamond layer is presented.

    11. A Reliable Tool for the Improvement of Micro Powder Injection Moulds Made of Steel (pages 661–665)

      A. Kienzler, B. Okolo, V. Schulze, A. Wanner and D. Löhe

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800059

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      Micro powder injection moulding (μPIM) is a common technique for an economic large-scale production of micro parts. To ensure a long service life a high wear resistance is required which can better be fulfilled by moulds made of steel than by those made of brass. In this study the focus will be on the development of specific residual stress states at and below the surface of a mechanically processed Toolox 44 sample.

    12. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Alloy Concentration Limits for the Halogen Effect of TiAl Alloys (pages 666–674)

      P. J. Masset and M. Schütze

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800057

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      By applying a well defined amount of halogen to the surface of intermetallic TiAl base alloys, their high temperature oxidation resistance can be improved significantly. The so-called halogen effect consists in the preferential reaction of aluminium in the alloy with halogen, which gives rise to the formation of an almost pure alumina layer. The present study aims to provide a theoretical assessment of the Al concentration range where a positive effect is expected.

    13. Improvement of the High-Temperature Oxidation Resistance of γ-TiAl by Selectively Pre-treated Si-based Coating (pages 675–677)

      A. Ebach-Stahl, M. Fröhlich, R. Braun and C. Leyens

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this study the degradation of the oxidation resistance of γ-TiAl alloys caused by the high affinity of titanium for oxygen was mitigated by forming thermodynamically stable titanium silicides on the surface. To form surface layers of thermodynamically stable titanium silicides an optimized high vacuum pre-treatment at 1000 °C was used applying slow heating and cooling rates.

    14. Microstructural Investigation of Walking Parts of Military Tanks Coated with Arc Spraying (pages 678–685)

      U. Ozsarac, S. Aslanlar and E. Ilhan

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800058

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      The walking parts are the most important mechanical components in military tanks and other vehicles having palettes. The matrix phase of carrying wheels is Cu-based aluminum alloy. In this study, the microstructure of walking parts of military tanks was investigated deeply by optically and scanning electron microscopy.

    15. Nanoscaled Multilayer Coatings for X-Ray Optics (pages 686–691)

      F. Hertlein, S. Kroth, C. Michaelsen, A. Oehr and J. Wiesmann

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800062

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Incoatec develops and produces multilayer X-ray optics with single layers of a few nanometers thickness. These optics are used in X-ray diffractometers (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), single crystal diffraction (SCD) applications and at synchrotron sources. In this contribution, details of the production of multilayer X-ray optics with sputter deposition methods are described.

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