Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 1‐2

January 2009

Volume 11, Issue 1-2

Pages 3–116

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Research News
    5. Communications
    1. Ultrasonic Metal Welding of Aluminium Sheets to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (Adv. Eng. Mater. 1–2/2009)

      Frank Balle, Guntram Wagner and Dietmar Eifler

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990003

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      The Cover shows a hybrid joint for multi-material lightweight components realized by ultrasonic metal welding at the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern. Ultrasonic welding is one innovative technology for joining carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRP) with sheet metals like aluminium alloys or aluminium plated steels. The achievable mechanical properties of the ultrasonic welded joints were carried out by using statistical test methods. One example for the evaluation of the welding results is presented on the left hand side of the Cover. Additionally a scanning electron micrograph of the bonding zone of an aluminium/CFRP-joint is shown in the background. More details about the ultrasonic welding technique can be found in the article of F. Balle, G. Wagner and D. Eifler on page 35 of this issue.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Research News
    5. Communications
    1. Contents: (Adv. Eng. Mater. 1–2/2009) (pages 3–8)

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990004

  3. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Research News
    5. Communications
    1. The Effect of the Superconducting Transition on Plastic Deformation of Ultrafine-Grained Aluminum (pages 9–15)

      Yuri Estrin, Vera Fomenko, Tatyana Grigorova, Nikolai Isaev, Vitaliy Pustovalov, Sergiy Shumilin and Milos Janecek

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800251

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      The mechanical properties at a record low temperature of 0.52 K on the mechanical behavior of ultrafine- and coarse-grained aluminum, as well as the mechanical response to the superconducting transition, are presented. The strain hardening behavior and the magnitude of the stress jumps associated with the superconducting transition are related to the microstructure of the material produced by severe plastic deformation.

    2. Nitrided Amorphous Stainless Steel Coatings Deposited by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering from an Austenitic Stainless Steel Target (pages 17–25)

      Salvatore Cusenza, Daniel Jürgens, Michael Uhrmacher and Peter Schaaf

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800228

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      The effect of nitriding on magnetron-sputtered austenitic stainless steel films is reported. The reactively sputtered films were investigated in detail concerning phase formation, microstructure, and properties. In a wide range of the processing parameters a new soft ferromagnetic amorphous phase is observed. A first model is presented in order to explain the formation of this amorphous phase.

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Research News
    5. Communications
    1. Mechanical and Fatigue Behavior of Ca65Mg15Zn20 Bulk-Metallic Glass (pages 27–34)

      Gongyao Wang, Peter K. Liaw, Oleg N. Senkov, Daniel B. Miracle and Mark L. Morrison

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800313

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      The compression behavior of a Ca65Mg15Zn20 bulk-metallic glass (BMG) was studied. The specimens showed no macroscopic plasticity. They fractured by exploding into many very small pieces. The Vickers hardness of the Ca65Mg15Zn20 BMG was about 1.42 GPa. The fatigue limit for compression–compression fatigue was found to be about 140 MPa after 106 cycles. The fracture strength was inversely proportional to the fracture time. The proposed mechanism of the splitting and shear fracture modes clearly explained these properties.

    2. Ultrasonic Metal Welding of Aluminium Sheets to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (pages 35–39)

      Frank Balle, Guntram Wagner and Dietmar Eifler

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800271

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      The ultrasonic welding technology is an innovative method to produce hybrid joints for multi-material components. The investigations described in this paper were carried out using the ultrasonic metal welding technique for joining carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRP) with sheet metals like aluminium alloys or aluminium-plated steels. The achievable mechanical properties as a function of the process parameters are presented. Additionally, microscopic investigations of the bonding zone are discussed. One important advantage of ultrasonic metal welding is the possibility to realise a direct contact between the load bearing fibres of the reinforced composite and the metallic surface without destroying the carbon fibres.

    3. A Novel Fe-Mn-Si Shape Memory Alloy With Improved Shape Recovery Properties by VC Precipitation (pages 40–44)

      Zhizhong Dong, Ulrich E. Klotz, Christian Leinenbach, Andrea Bergamini, Christoph Czaderski and Masoud Motavalli

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800312

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      In this work, a nominally new Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloy with a small amount of VC was designed. After an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a shape recovery of more than 90% after an elongation of 4% could be achieved when the alloys were heated up to 225°C. In addition, high recovery stresses of up to 380 MPa could be obtained after heating to 225°C, whereas 330 MPa were obtained after heating to 160°C.

    4. Effect of Mounting Material Compliance on Nanoindentation Response of Metallic Materials (pages 45–51)

      Grant A. Crawford, Nikhilesh Chawla, Mark Koopman, Kipp Carlisle and Krishan K. Chawla

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800253

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      Nanoindentation is an important and versatile technique for probing the properties of materials on the nanoscale. There are many factors that may affect nanoindentation measurements. One factor is the added compliance associated with mounting resins used to fix nanoindentation samples in place. We report on the effect of specimen mounting resin compliance on nanoindentation results.

    5. Creating Aligned, Elongated Pores in Titanium Foams by Swaging of Preforms with Ductile Space-Holder (pages 52–55)

      Yasumasa Chino and David C. Dunand

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800232

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      Preforms of titanium powders containing a naphthalene-based space-holder phase are swaged. The elongated space-holder particles are sublimated and the preform is sintered, resulting in titanium foams with 49–65% porosity consisting of: a) small equiaxed pores from incomplete powder sintering and b) larger, elongated pores replicating the space-holder, which are aligned along the swaging direction. The foam carbon content (0.39 wt%) is below the value for severe titanium embrittlement.

    6. Compressive Behavior of Pyramidal, Tetrahedral, and Strut-Reinforced Tetrahedral ABS and Electroplated Cellular Solids (pages 56–62)

      Samuel Markkula, Steven Storck, Devin Burns and Marc Zupan

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800284

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      Fused deposition modeling combined with electroplating provides a novel manufacturing methodology for building low relative density engineered cellular topologies. Here the mechanical performance of tetrahedral, pyramidal, and strut-reinforced tetrahedral cellular solids manufactured from multiphase nickel-copper-ABS is studied. The novel processing and geometric optimization places these engineered topologies into an unoccupied location in the material universe.

    7. Suppression of Premature Fracture of Silicon under Three-Point Bending: Role of Nanoscale Localized Deformation of Metallic Multilayered Coating (pages 63–66)

      Yuan-Ping Li, Xiao-Fei Zhu, Jun Tan and Guang-Ping Zhang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800233

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      Brittle single crystal Si with and without Au/Cu multilayer coating was investigated via three-point bending test. Load-bearing capacity of the Si coated with the Au/Cu multilayer is improved evidently compared with the bare Si. Especially the nanoscale plastic deformation of the multilayer was observed to be effective in delaying instable crack propagation within the Si. That would shed significant light in toughening methods of brittle materials.

    8. Hollow Cathode Gas Flow Sputtering of NixAly Coatings on Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo: Mechanical Properties and Microstructures (pages 67–70)

      Andreas Kohns, Kai Ortner and Thomas Jung

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800226

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      A W-TiB2-multilayer erosion resistant coating with a NixAly bond coat deposited by hollow cathode gas flow sputtering is under development for Ti6246 aero engine compressor blades. Blade vibrations in service can produce cracks in the coating propagating into the substrate and reducing the high-cycle fatigue strength of the component. It is assumed, that this effect can be diminished by adapting the mechanical and morphological properties of the NixAly bond coat. In this context, process parameter variations are performed and discussed.

    9. Influence of Ti on the Mechanical Properties of AgCuInTi Active Brazing Fillers (pages 71–74)

      Matteo Galli, Jolanta Janczak-Rusch and Marta Szankowska

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800310

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      Active brazing fillers were produced by adding Ti to a AgCuIn alloy and used to fabricate ceramic-metal joints. The alloy was investigated by hardness measurements and microscopy analyses and the joints tested in bending. The results show that Ti has a hardening effect. However, for the considered values of Ti addition (0.5–1.5 wt %), the extent of the hardening is insignificantly influenced by the Ti introduced in the filler.

    10. Roll-Bonded Titanium/Stainless-Steel Couples, Part 1: Diffusion and Interface-Layer Investigations (pages 75–81)

      S. Dziallach, W. Bleck, M. Köhler, G. Nicolini and S. Richter

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800276

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      A survey of the diffusion of the alloying elements Fe, Ni and Cr in a roll-bonded titanium/stainless-steel couple after an application-orientated heat treatment is presented. Diffusion profiles of the investigated elements by means of EPMA, and the diffusion coefficients and activation energies for application-oriented short annealing times up to 12 min in a temperature range of 750 to 950 °C are determined. The transformation of the hcp α-titanium into bcc β-titanium has a significant influence on the diffusion of the elements. The forming interface layers are characterised by LOM and SEM pictures.

    11. Roll-Bonded Titanium/Stainless-Steel Couples, Part 2: Mechanical Properties after Different Material-Treatment Routes (pages 82–87)

      S. Dziallach, W. Bleck, M. Köhler and G. Nicolini

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800277

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      The accessible mechanical properties of a roll-bonded titanium/stainless-steel couple, consisting of grade-1 titanium and a low-carbon Cr-Ni-Mo-steel (1.4404), after different heat treatments are described. The mechanical properties, determined by tensile and stretch-forming tests, facilitate the optimum process widow for the heat-treatment parameters after roll bonding. The results of stretch-forming tests to determine the forming limits of the composite are shown. These tests also give important indications of the failure mechanism of the composite. Deep-drawing tests allow a first estimation of the deep-drawing functional area for a subsequent forming process to be made.

    12. Impact of Recrystallization Defects on the High Temperature Strength of PM 3030 (pages 88–92)

      Michel Nganbe

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800268

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      The paper focuses on the impact of recrystallization defects on material strength as well as potential optimizations of material properties and manufacturing process. Therefore, it can be of great interest for materials research and development, production and quality control in industry.

    13. Crystal Growth of the Metal—Organic Framework Cu3(BTC)2 on the Surface of Pulp Fibers (pages 93–95)

      Pia Küsgens, Sven Siegle and Stefan Kaskel

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800274

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      In situ growth of highly porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in the presence of pulp fibers results in high surface area MOF/textile composites. Such a carrier concept is indispensable for any industrial application of MOFs.

    14. Improvement in the Specific Strength by Arranging Closed Pores in Fully Densified Zirconia Ceramics (pages 96–100)

      Akira Kishimoto, Masaaki Hanao and Hidetaka Hayashi

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800259

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      Superplastic-foamed porous ceramics containing numerous closed pores were fabricated. The bending strength of the fabricated ceramics with the smallest pores was close to half that of fully dense ones, even with a porosity of 27%. The smaller pores were introduced selectively between top and bottom surfaces. The resultant dense/porous/dense layered ceramics had a specific mechanical strength greater than that of monolithic dense ceramics.

    15. Fabrication of Al2O3/SiC Composite Microcomponents using Non-aqueous Suspension (pages 101–105)

      Hany Hassanin and Kyle Jiang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800158

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      This paper introduces a new process for fabrication of high resolution Al2O3/SiC composite microcomponents using softlithography and non-aqueous ceramic suspension. Polysilazane is used to provide both binding force and SiC composition. The shape retention and dimensions of the microcomponents were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness, shrinkage, and density of the resultant sintered components were also discussed.

    16. Net-Shape Alumina Microcomponents by Conversion of Al Powder (pages 106–110)

      Jung-Sik Kim, Kyle Jiang and Isaac T. Chang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800249

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      This paper highlights the process to fabricate alumina microcomponents. It was achieved by firstly sintering Al microcomponents using micro/nanopowders, and then turning Al into alumina (Al2O3) through oxidation. In this way, the shrinkage occurring in sintering the Al powder is compensated by the expansion occurred when Al transforms into alumina. The process has proven successful.

    17. Functionally Graded Layers Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (pages 111–116)

      W. S. Xia, H. O. Zhang, G. L. Wang and Y. Z. Yang

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800317

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      Two functionally graded layers between the electrolyte and adjacent electrodes were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Both the porosity and material compositions gradually vary in the two graded layers. The SOFC with the graded layers has higher electronic conductivity and far lower interface resistance than that without graded layers.

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