Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 5

May, 2009

Volume 11, Issue 5

Pages 331–421, B25–B54

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Influence of Filler Composition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel—Aluminum Joints Produced by Metal Arc Joining (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2009)

      Leonardo Agudo Jácome, Sebastian Weber, Alois Leitner, Enno Arenholz, Jürgen Bruckner, Heinz Hackl and Anke Rita Pyzalla

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990011

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      The cover shows the inverse pole figure map obtained by EBSD on the cross section of an hybrid aluminium-to-steel joint produced by the Cold Metal Transfer welding technique on a specially designed butt geometry…More details can be found in the article of L. Agudo et al. on page 350.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. You have free access to this content
      Novel Rice-shaped Bioactive Ceramic Nanoparticles (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2009)

      Zhongkui Hong, Esther G. Merino, Rui L. Reis and João F. Mano

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover of Advanced Biomaterials shows Rice-shaped bioactive ceramic nanoparticles with 70 nm in average diameter and around 200 nm in length were produced by an improved sol-gel method. In comparison to most traditional bioactive glass/ceramic materials this novel bioactive ceramic contains a significant lower quantity of silicon and higher content of phosphorous. In vitro bioactivity test showed that this new class of materials can induce the deposition of an apatite layer from SBF solution, having potential to be used in both conventional orthopedic applications or in bone tissue engineering when incorporated in composite scaffolds. More information can be found in the article of J. F. Mano et al. on page B25.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Contents: (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2009) (pages 331–336)

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990013

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Manufacturing of Net-Shape Reaction-Bonded Ceramic Microparts by Low-Pressure Injection Molding (pages 339–345)

      Nadja Schlechtriemen, Joachim R. Binder, Christina Hane, Marcus Müller, Hans-Joachim Ritzhaupt-Kleissl and Jürgen Haußelt

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800377

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      Reaction-bonded oxide ceramics based on intermetallic compounds are able to compensate the sintering shrinkage completely due to their high increase in volume caused by oxidation. Using low-pressure injection molding (LPIM) for shaping ceramics avoids needless materials loss and affords the manufacturing of complex formed structures. The combination of both, reaction-bonded ceramic and LPIM-processing, offers the manufacturing of ceramic microparts by keeping a high accuracy and replication quality.

    2. Properties of Powder Injection Molded Graphite for Tribological Applications (pages 346–349)

      Christian A. Rottmair, Michael Gruhl, Ralf Winter and Robert F. Singer

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800320

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      Fine grained graphites are widely used as materials for tribologically stressed components. These often complex shaped components are rather expensive due to inevitable and time consuming machining operations. In this study, mechanical and tribological properties of injection molded graphites are investigated to determine the influence of the processing conditions onto the final properties. As demonstrated in this paper injection molded graphite even exceeds the expectations and can compete with most commercially available pressed graphites.

    3. Influence of Filler Composition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Steel—Aluminum Joints Produced by Metal Arc Joining (pages 350–358)

      Leonardo Agudo Jácome, Sebastian Weber, Alois Leitner, Enno Arenholz, Jürgen Bruckner, Heinz Hackl and Anke Rita Pyzalla

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800319

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      Chemical joining of aluminum to steel parts is one of the main challenges in the automotive industry to achieve sound economical solutions for required automobile weight reduction. The cold metal transfer (CMT) is a fusion welding process developed to meet that challenge. It is shown in this paper how the choice of proper filler materials can yield appropriate mechanical performance of specially designed dissimilar CMT butt joints by improving the seam characteristics and weld bead properties.

    4. Flow Behavior of Sandwich Structures for Cooling Thermally Highly Loaded Steam Turbine Components (pages 359–363)

      Paul Beiss, Essam El-Magd and Jan Stuhrmann

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800347

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      To increase steam temperature and pressure in the steam turbine, a new cooling structure (see picture) was developed comprising a woven wire mesh interlayer between two plane sheets. Cooling steam is fed into the interlayer, where it can flow without severe losses. To characterize the mechanical high temperature behavior of the structure, the flow behavior under static loading was investigated and simulated by the finite element method (FEM).

    5. Microstructure Characterization of Tool Steel Claddings Co-Extruded on Low Alloyed Steel Substrates (pages 364–369)

      Pedro Augusto da Souza e Silva, Sebastian Weber, Aleksander Kostka and Anke Rita Pyzalla

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800390

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      Low-alloyed steel bars are hot extruded with pre-sintered tool-steel powders with or without the addition of tungsten carbides (W2C/WC) as hard particles. An extrudate is formed consisting of a wear resistant coating layer and a bulk steel bar as the substrate core. The microstructure at the interface between coating and substrate of different coatings is characterized using OM, SEM and EBSD.

    6. Statistic Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior of Bulk Metallic Glasses (pages 370–373)

      Hai Bin Yu, Wei Hua Wang, Ji Liang Zhang, C. Hong Shek and Hai Yang Bai

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800380

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      The Weibull distribution is used to characterize the mechanical behavior of a bulk metallic glass (BMG). The strength of the BMG is quite stable, while the plasticity is much less stable. The reason is attributed to the fraction and distribution of free volumes, which are sensitive to processing conditions. The results demonstrate the close relationship between the distribution and fraction of free volumes and plasticity in BMGs.

    7. The Coupling Effect of Small Nanocrystals and Free Volume on the Ductility of Cu46Zr47Al7 Bulk Metallic Glass Alloy (pages 374–379)

      Feng Jiang, Yanglei Zhao, Lincai Zhang, Shibin Pan, Yinggang Zhou, Lin He and Jun Sun

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800363

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      Cu46Zr47Al7 bulk metallic glass (BMG) and its composite containing small in situ precipitated nanocrystals were prepared through copper mold casting. Different free volume states of these Cu46Zr47Al7 alloys were obtained through thermal treatment such as annealing and quenching. Three-point bending tests for these alloys were undertaken to evaluate their plastic deformation ability. Free volume changes were measured indirectly but quantitatively with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. The results show that, the ductility of Cu46Zr47Al7 alloys is closely related with the free volume states and the ductility of thermally embrittled Cu46Zr47Al7 alloys samples can be partially recovered by restoring free volume through quenching process. The presence of small nanocrystals is more efficient than free volume to enhance the ductility. However, only with the concurrence of the small nanocrystals and the free volume, the Cu46Zr47Al7 BMG alloys will present excellent ductility.

    8. Air-Oxidation of a Cu45Zr45Al5Ag5 Bulk Metallic Glass (pages 380–386)

      Wu Kai, I Fei Ren, Pei Chin Kao, Rui Fang Wang, Chih-Pin Chuang, Matthew W. Freels and Peter K. Liaw

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800366

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      This work studied the oxidation behavior of a Ag-containing Cu–Zr–Al-based amorphous alloy (CZA4-BMG) in dry air at 375–500 °C. The oxidation kinetics of CZA4-BMG obeyed a multi-stage parabolic-rate law, and its steady-state oxidation-rate constants were slightly lower than those of Ag-free amorphous alloy (CZA3-BMG) at the temperature below 450 °C, indicating that the addition of Ag played a partly blocking effect in reducing the available cross-sections of the substrate, which in turn reduced inward diffusion of oxygen, thereby leading to the reduction of oxidation rates for CZA4-BMG.

    9. Designing Ductile Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses with Phase Separated Microstructure (pages 387–391)

      Xinghao Du, Jacob C. Huang, Ker-Chang Hsieh, Jason S. C. Jang, Peter K. Liaw, Hai-Ming Chen, Hung-Sheng Chou and Yan-Huei Lai

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800370

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      Using the thermodynamic computation, the phase-separated Zr-based bulk metallic glasses with a enhanced plasticity up to 20% are developed. The as-cast microstructure is characterized by the macroscopic heterogeneities consisting of the phase-separated regions and glassy matrix regions. The microscaled phase-separated feature is the cause of the remarkable plasticity, and the homogeneous and concurrent formation of multiple shear bands is crucial for the plasticity improvement in metallic glasses.

    10. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of ZrC Reinforced (Zr-Ti)-Al-Ni-Cu Glassy Composites by an In Situ Reaction (pages 392–398)

      Tao Liu, Ping Shen, Feng Qiu, Tao Zhang and Qichuan Jiang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800359

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      Wetting behaviors of TiC and ZrC by a molten Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 alloy were investigated in order to give an instruction in synthesizing the glassy composites using a liquid casting route. The (Zr-Ti)55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass matrix composites, reinforced by in situ ZrC particles were then fabricated by copper mold casting. The microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated systematically.

    11. Thermal Stability of W-xRe/TiC/SiC Systems = 0, 5 and 25 at % Re) at High Temperature (pages 399–407)

      Jerome Roger, Fabienne Audubert and Yann le Petitcorps

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800354

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      To ensure the integrity and sustainability of high-temperature applications, the development of protective materials is actually one of the major challenge in materials science. In our study, we examined the effect of a TiC film interlayered between W-xRe (x = 0, 5 or 25 at % Re) and SiC. The protection given by TiC layer was considered in the 1573–1873 K temperature range and for TiC thicknesses up to about 100 μm.

    12. Layer-by-Layer Interference Lithography of Three-dimensional Microstructures in SU-8 (pages 408–411)

      Andrés F. Lasagni, Dajun Yuan and Suman Das

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800382

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      We report on rapid fabrication of two-, two and a half-, and 3D planar periodic structures using layer-by-layer deposition and interference patterning of SU-8 photoresist. Complex structures with non-periodic vertical symmetry were fabricated controlling the cure depth by addition of a UV absorber. The fabrication method reported here can be applied for the high-volume manufacturing of solid structures for microelectromechanical systems and microfluidic devices.

    13. Influence of Al-Containing Interfacial Coatings on Carbon-Fiber/Bakelite Composite Thermal and Electrical Properties (pages 412–416)

      Zeljko Pajkic and Monika Willert-Porada

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800373

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      Polymer-matrix (Bakelite®) composites were produced with coated short carbon fibers as a filler material and characterized in terms of their thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. The influence of thin, Al-containing ceramic coatings on the composite material's macroscopic properties is discussed, as the composites with interfacial coatings show improvements in some properties, as compared to the ones with uncoated fibers.

    14. Vitrified Silica-Nanofiber Mats as Reinforcements for Epoxy Resins (pages 417–421)

      Oliver Weichold, Britta Tigges, Wiebke Voigt, Alina Adams and Helga Thomas

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800335

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      The effects of vitrified, electrospun silica nanofiber mats on the tensile and bending strength (see Figure) of epoxy resins are presented. The mats consist of randomly oriented, amorphous filaments of 600–800 nm diameter. The effects of annealing conditions and surface functionalization on the fiber/matrix adhesion is discussed. The results are compared to those of reference materials.

  5. Advanced Biomaterials

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Novel Rice-shaped Bioactive Ceramic Nanoparticles (pages B25–B29)

      Zhongkui Hong, Esther G. Merino, Rui L. Reis and João F. Mano

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800378

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rice-shaped bioactive ceramic nanoparticles of 70 nm average diameter and around 200 nm length were produced by an improved sol-gel method. In comparison to most traditional bioactive glass/ceramic materials, this novel bioactive ceramic contains a significant lower quantity of silicon and higher content of phosphorous. In vitro bioactivity tests showed that this new class of materials can induce the deposition of an apatite layer from simulated body fluid, having the potential to be used in both conventional orthopedic applications or in bone tissue engineering when incorporated in composite scaffolds.

    2. Fabrication of Galactosylated Polyethylenimine and Plasmid DNA Multilayers on poly (D,L-lactic acid) Films for in situ Targeted Gene Transfection (pages B30–B34)

      Yan Hu, Kaiyong Cai, Zhong Luo, Chong Chen, Haide Dong, Jianyuan Hao, Li Yang and Linhong Deng

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800342

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      This study presents surface-mediated targeted in situ gene delivery from gene-tagged poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) films, which were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique with galactosylated polyethylenimine (GP) and plasmid DNA (pDNA, pSV-β-galactosidase). A linear growth of GP/pDNA multilayered films was observed. The pDNA was continuously released from multilayered films for over 32 h. The multilayered structure degraded and simultaneously formed GP/pDNA complexes in situ when exposing to a physiological environment. The pDNA was well protected by GP against DNase I digestion within formed GP/pDNA complexes. Our results demonstrated that GP contributes to receptor-mediated targeting for cell uptake and in situ gene transfection. The results reported here are potentially important for gene therapy, surface engineering of biomaterials, tissue engineering and implant technology.

    3. Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites from Biodegradable Thermoplastic Elastomers (pages B35–B40)

      Miroslawa El Fray

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800333

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      Soft and elastomeric poly(ester–ether–ester) multiblock terpolymers were synthesized in presence of 0.5 wt % hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles to form nanocomposites. The addition of sintered HAp particles enhanced cell proliferation and diminished the number of dead and apoptotic cells. Implantation tests indicated that the observed hard tissue changes led to intense bone remodeling (see picture)

    4. Different Calcium Phosphate Granules for 3-D Printing of Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages B41–B46)

      Hermann Seitz, Ulrike Deisinger, Barbara Leukers, Rainer Detsch and Günter Ziegler

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800334

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      The 3-D printing technique was used for the fabrication of HA, TCP and BCP ceramics and the influence of the granulate composition on the 3-D printed scaffolds was investigated. An optimal composition for 3-D printing granulates was found. Thus, individual implants can be manufactured via 3-D printing from different CaP phase compositions to tailor their degradation behavior and osteoconductivity for enhanced bone healing.

    5. Influence of Different Surface Machining Treatments of Magnesium-based Resorbable Implants on the Degradation Behavior in Rabbits (pages B47–B54)

      Nina Von Der Höh, Dirk Bormann, Arne Lucas, Berend Denkena, Christian Hackenbroich and Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800273

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      The surface of magnesium–calcium implants (MgCa0.8) was differently treated which resulted in cylinders with smooth, sand-blasted, or threaded surface. These cylinders were implanted into the medial femoral condyle of New Zealand White rabbits. The degradation behavior and the reaction of the organism were assessed by clinical compatibility, radiographs, and µ-computed tomography.

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