Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 6

June, 2009

Volume 11, Issue 6

Pages 427–514

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. In situ Grazing Incidence Scattering Investigations During Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of FePt/Ag Thin Films (Adv. Eng. Mater. 6/2009)

      Valentina Cantelli, Johannes von Borany, Nicole Martha Jeutter and Jörg Grenzer

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows an grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering pattern of a granular Ag(6nm)-FePt(7.5nm)-Ag-FePt thin film using an in-situ magnetron sputtering chamber measured directly after growth at the Beamline BM20 (ROBL) at the ESRF. The sequential deposition provides separated, faceted FePt nanoislands without any magnetic property degradation and with magnetic moments preferentially oriented parallel to layer surface. The central part of the picture was blocked by a beam stop to avoid an over-saturation of the CCD detector. More details can be found in the article by Jörg Grenzer et al. on page 478.

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. Editorial (page 427)

      Wolfgang Hoffelner

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990015

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. Contents: (Adv. Eng. Mater. 6/2009) (pages 429–433)

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990016

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. Synchrotron-Based Micro-CT and Refraction-Enhanced Micro-CT for Non-Destructive Materials Characterisation (pages 435–440)

      Bernd R. Müller, Axel Lange, Michael Harwardt and Manfred P. Hentschel

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800346

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In computed tomography, the contrast at interfaces within heterogeneous materials can be strongly amplified by effects related to X-ray refraction. The technique is based on ultra-small-angle scattering by micro-structural elements causing phase-related effects, such as refraction and total reflection. It creates an extraordinary contrast of the inner surfaces and is especially useful for materials of low absorption or mixed phases showing low absorption contrast.

  5. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. Going Ultra: How We Can Increase the Length Scales Studied in Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (pages 441–445)

      Melissa A. Sharp, P. Klaus Pranzas and Andreas Schreyer

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800331

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This article discusses how combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering (USANS) measurements have helped provide further insight into structural features that are of interest in both materials science and polymer science. The length scales that can be probed by combining these techniques range from a few nanometers to 50 µm..

    2. Neutron Reflectometry: A Tool to Investigate Diffusion Processes in Solids on the Nanometer Scale (pages 446–451)

      Harald Schmidt, Erwin Hüger, Sujoy Chakravarty, Jochen Stahn, Thomas Gutberlet, Ursula Tietze and Dieter Lott

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800325

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present self-diffusion studies using neutron reflectometry and isotope multilayers. This method allows the detection of extremely short diffusion lengths below 1 nm at corresponding low self-diffusivities between down to 10−25 m2 s−1. Such a combination of values cannot be achieved by conventional methods of diffusivity determination. Using our method, the extensive characterization of materials which are in a non-equilibrium state, like amorphous and nanocrystalline solids becomes possible.

    3. Principles of Highly Resolved Determination of Texture and Microstructure using High-Energy Synchrotron Radiation (pages 452–458)

      Helmut Klein

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800368

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      To describe a polycrystalline aggregate completely the orientation stereology must be determined. This must be done with an extremely high angular and local resolution in three orientation coordinates as well as in three local coordinates. Such high resolving power can be reached using high-energy synchrotron radiation in combination with a sweeping technique. Here some examples of the manifold applications are given.

    4. Application of Synchrotron Radiation Techniques for Model Validation of Advanced Structural Materials (pages 459–463)

      Annick Froideval, Maria Samaras, Roberto Iglesias, Manuel A. Pouchon, Jiachao Chen, Daniel Grolimund, Joerg Raabe, Stefan Schuppler, Maximo Victoria and Wolfgang Hoffelner

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800328

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Complementary synchrotron-based X-ray absorption techniques such as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), and photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) are used to address the individual local atomic structure and magnetic moments in Fe–Cr model systems. The formation of atomic clusters/precipitates in such systems is also investigated by means of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Such advanced analytical techniques can not only provide valuable structural and magnetic information on such materials, they can also serve for validating computational calculations performed at different time and length scales.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. Effect of Microstructure on Residual Stresses in Sintered Diamond–Metal Composites (pages 465–470)

      U. Selvadurai-Laßl, H.-A. Crostack, G. Fischer, J. Nellesen, W. Tillmann, M. Gathen and A. Rothkirch

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800393

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As residual stresses can reduce the lifetime of diamond-cobalt composite cutting tools, the composite stress state needs to be understood very well. Thus, the effect of microstructure on the residual stresses was investigated here. Stress measurements were carried out in the cobalt matrix by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Synchrotron-XRD (SXRD). In addition to global stress measurements, investigations of stresses in small cobalt areas near the diamonds were performed by high brilliant synchrotron radiation using different apertures.

    2. In situ Study of Internal Load Transfer in a Novel Metal/Ceramic Composite Exhibiting Lamellar Microstructure Using Energy Dispersive Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (pages 471–477)

      Siddhartha Roy, Jens Gibmeier and Alexander Wanner

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800352

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      Freeze casting offers a new technique to fabricate ceramic preforms for metal/ceramic composites. Internal load transfer under external compressive loading in such composites has been studied for the first time using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results show that load transfer takes place from the soft metallic alloy to the hard ceramic which has been explained in the light of generalized Hooke's law and classical laminate theory.

    3. In situ Grazing Incidence Scattering Investigations During Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of FePt/Ag Thin Films (pages 478–482)

      Valentina Cantelli, Johannes von Borany, Nicole Martha Jeutter and Jörg Grenzer

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using in situ synchrotron X-ray grazing incidence scattering experiments we investigated FePt islands mediated by Ag. FePt has been deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on amorphous Si/SiO2 substrate at 400 °C, to support the formation of the hard ferromagnetic L10-FePt phase during growth. The sequential Ag/FePt deposition provides separated FePt nanoislands without magnetic property degradation. We obtained magnetic moments preferentially oriented parallel to layer surface.

    4. Analysis of Tin Diffusion in Zircaloy-4 and Tin Redistribution after Steam Oxidation by Means of X-ray Fluorescence Measurements (pages 483–487)

      Mirco Grosse and Rolf Simon

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800344

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      The temperature dependence of tin diffusion coefficients in the nuclear fuel rod cladding tube material Zircaloy-4 is determined in the range of 1 000–1 400 °C by means of X-ray fluorescence measurements. During oxidation at these temperatures, tin is redistributed, as shown in the figure. Due to tin diffusion in zirconium being much slower than the growing of the oxide layer, tin is segregated inside the oxide layer and at phase boundaries.

    5. Analysis of Anisotropic Void System in Electron-Beam Physical-Vapour-Deposited (EB-PVD) Thermal-Barrier Coatings (pages 488–494)

      Bilge Saruhan, René Ochrombel, Vasyl Ryukhtin and Albrecht Wiedenmann

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800329

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Anisotropic and nanosized pores in PYSZ-based TBCs are analysed by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Three different coating morphologies are produced by varying the process parameters. In order to differentiate between closed and open pores in 400 μm thick coatings, a contrast-matching SANS technique is employed. In situ high-temperature SANS measurements demonstrate the occurrence of thermally activated surface area and pore-surface changes. Thermally derived changes in the pore size and morphology are correlated with the thermal conductivity measured using laser-flash analysis (LFA).

    6. Multi-scale Microstructure Characterization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Assemblies With Ultra Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (pages 495–501)

      Andrew J. Allen, Jan Ilavsky and Artur Braun

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800357

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultra small angle X-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation is applied to assess the pore space of a highly complex solid oxide fuel cell assembly. The instrument permits to record scattering curves covering a size range from 1 nm to several μm in a fine step width of 15 μm.

    7. In situ Investigation of Structural Changes during Deformation and Fracture of Polymers by Synchrotron SAXS and WAXS (pages 502–506)

      Konrad Schneider, Nikolaos E. Zafeiropoulos and Manfred Stamm

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800323

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By simultaneous mechanical characterisation and synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), it is possible to characterise on-line local changes in a polymer's structure with a rather-high time and space resolution, together with the mechanical properties. In this contribution, we discuss the experimental requirements for such investigations as well as three examples. The evolution of structural features during tensile deformation of a polyethylene copolymer, as depicted by WAXS (top) and SAXS (bottom) are shown in the figure. The deformation leads to a martensitic transformation from the orthorhombic to monoclinic system and the formation of nanocavities.

    8. The Fate of Lead in MSWI-Fly Ash During Heat Treatment: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study (pages 507–512)

      Rudolf Paul Wilhelm Jozef Struis, Maarten Nachtegaal, Harald Mattenberger and Christian Ludwig

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800324

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      The study focuses on the potential of removing toxifying Pb from a certified, multi-element fly ash (BCR176) by thermal treatment between 300 and 950 °C under different carrier gas compositions (Ar or Ar + O2). The treatment was studied by in situ monitoring the evaporation rate of Pb, C, S, Na, and K during heating and by synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy of selected samples collected during vaporization at the Pb L3-edge.

  7. Correction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Editorial
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Research News
    7. Communications
    8. Correction
    1. You have free access to this content
      New Materials in Memory Development Sub 50 nm: Trends in Flash and DRAM (pages 513–514)

      Karl Heinz Kuesters, Marc Florian Beug, Uwe Schroeder, Nicolas Nagel, Ulrike Bewersdorff, Gerald Dallmann, Stefan Jakschik, Roman Knoefler, Stephan Kudelka, Christoph Ludwig, Dirk Manger, Wolfgang Mueller and Armin Tilke

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990017

      This article corrects:

      New Materials in Memory Development Sub 50 nm: Trends in Flash and DRAM1

      Vol. 11, Issue 4, 241–248, Article first published online: 8 APR 2009

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