Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 7

July, 2009

Volume 11, Issue 7

Pages B55–B81, 519–606

  1. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Communications
    3. Cover Picture
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    1. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Trititanate Nanotube Composite Fibers (pages B55–B60)

      Chonlada Dechakiatkrai, Carol Lynam, Kerry J. Gilmore, Jun Chen, Sukon Phanichphant, Dmitry V. Bavykin, Frank C. Walsh and Gordon G. Wallace

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800337

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      For the first time, single-walled carbon nanotubes were dispersed with titanate nanotubes using bio-polymers. Direct injection (wet spinning) of the stable suspension of H2Ti3O7 and SWNTs into coagulation baths produced fibers. The mechanical and electrical properties along with surface morphology and electrochemistry of the resulting fibers were investigated. The presence of SWNTs clearly improved the mechanical and electrical properties of the composite fibers compared with H2Ti3O7 alone.

    2. Antibacterial and Abrasion-Resistant Alumina Micropatterns (pages B61–B66)

      Laura Treccani, Marcus Maiwald, Volker Zöllmer, Matthias Busse, Georg Grathwohl and Kurosch Rezwan

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800372

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this work, a novel processing route to fabricate alumina surfaces that feature remarkable antibacterial and abrasion-resistant properties is reported. By combining micropatterning with antibacterial enzymes and alumina nanoparticles, we fabricated surfaces that present a feasible and highly interesting alternative to improve, e.g., systems employed for water transport containing abrasive agents, aggressive media and microorganisms.

    3. In vitro Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Bioactive Glass-ceramic Scaffolds (pages B67–B70)

      Marta F. Gorriti, José M. Porto López, Aldo R. Boccaccini, Carina Audisio and Alejandro A. Gorustovich

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900081

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      Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen of major clinical interest for its high prevalence in biomaterial-related infections. This experimental study provides the first evidence in vitro that bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds made from both 45S5 Bioglass® and from boron containing bioactive glass (45S5.2B) as well as their ionic dissolution products do no exhibit antibacterial effect against several strains of S. aureus.

    4. Diamond Seeding and Growth of Hierarchically Structured Films for Tissue Engineering (pages B71–B76)

      Alexander Kromka, Bohuslav Rezek, Marie Kalbacova, Veronika Baresova, Josef Zemek, Cestmir Konak and Milan Vanecek

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800384

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      The importance of using optimized diamond powder suspension for an efficient seeding process is shown to be crucial for the growth of hierarchically structured nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films. The morphology of freshly adhered human osteoblastic cells (SAOS-2) on such structured NCD films is significantly influenced by the substrate roughness. The hierarchically structured NCD films can thus find application in cell cultivation implants and tissue engineering.

    5. Microstructural Study of Mn and Si Co-substituted Hydroxyapatite Thin Films Produced by a Sol–Gel Method (pages B77–B81)

      Aligül Büyükaksoy, Nihat Can Köseoglu, Muhammed Hasan Aslan and Ahmet Yavuz Oral

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800345

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microstructural changes in sol–gel derived hydroxyapatite thin films associated with Mn and Si co-substitution are investigated. The apatite-forming ability of fabricated thin films in simulated body fluid are found to be affected by changes in the crystallinity and formation of a more dissolvable calcium phosphate phase.

  2. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Communications
    3. Cover Picture
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 7/2009

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Images showing the microstructure of conventional and auxetic foams produced through the traditional thermo-mechanical process and the novel chemo-mechanical process. Auxetic foams exhibit the unusual property of becoming fatter which stretched, a property which makes them superior to conventional foams in various applications ranging from smart tunable filters to vibration-proofing materials. (Project financed by the Malta Council for Science and Technology, led by the University of Malta in collaboration with Methode Electronics (Malta) Ltd.)

  3. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Communications
    3. Cover Picture
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 7/2009

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows schematically an alumina micropattern functionalised with lysozyme, a natural antibacterial enzyme. Surface biofunctionalisation and surface micropatterning have been combined to create novel materials surfaces that withstand microbial adhesion and surface abrasion.

      Lysozyme deposited on the alumina micropatterns features a remarkable antibacterial activity. In particular, the fabricated alumina micropatterns allow an efficient physical and chemical protection for the deposited enzyme even at abrasive and acidic conditions.

      Such biofunctionalised surfaces present a highly interesting alternative to suppress biofouling and degradation of materials surfaces.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Communications
    3. Cover Picture
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Communications
    3. Cover Picture
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    1. Achieving Low Temperature Superplasticity from Ca-Containing Magnesium Alloy Sheets (pages 525–529)

      Woo-Jin Kim, Gyu Eung Lee and Jong Beom Lee

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The application of hot extrusion and high-speed-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) to a Ca-containing Mg[BOND]-3Al[BOND]1Zn magnesium alloy, processed by electromagnetic casting in the presence of electromagnetic stirring, produced a novel microstructure, composed of an ultrafine grain size of less than 1 μm and very fine (Al,Mg)2Ca particles that were uniformly and densely distributed over the matrix. The HRDSR processed alloy exhibited excellent superplasticity at relatively low temperatures (below 523 K).

    2. Synthesis and Properties of Al-Ni-La Bulk Metallic Glass (pages 530–532)

      Juan Mu, Huameng Fu, Zhengwang Zhu, Aimin Wang, Hong Li, Zhuangqi Hu and Haifeng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Al85.5Ni9.5La5 bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a size of 1 mm is synthesized for the first time through a two-step melt treatment. The treatment effectively removes the local structural ordering and high-temperature phases, as well as allowing a high cooling rate. The sample displays good mechanical properties. The compressive fracture strength is about 1180 MPa, which is higher than that of most Mg-based BMGs and Al alloys.

    3. A Novel Process for the Manufacture of Auxetic Foams and for Their re-Conversion to Conventional Form (pages 533–535)

      Joseph N. Grima, Daphne Attard, Ruben Gatt and Richard N. Cassar

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800388

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Images showing the microstructure of conventional and auxetic foams produced through the traditional thermo–mechanical process and the novel chemo–mechanical process. Auxetic foams exhibit the unusual property of becoming fatter which when stretched a property which makes them superior to conventional foams in various applications ranging from smart tunable filters to vibration-proofing materials.

    4. A Feasibility Study of Wire-Woven Cellular Metal as Catalytic Support Material (pages 536–540)

      Byung-Chul Choi, Jong-Woo Jeong, Jai-Hwang Joo and Ki-Ju Kang

      Version of Record online: 12 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800398

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Wire-woven bulk Kagome (WBK) specimens were fabricated by wires made of Fecralloy, a Fe-Cr-Al alloy, and their feasibility as supports for an oxidation catalyst was investigated. For catalytic reactivity, the catalyst-coated WBK supports perform as well as the corresponding cordierite support, even though the WBK support has much lower flow resistance. Moreover, WBK is advantageous in terms of mass productivity, weight, durability and impact strength. The image shows a close-up view of the WBK support after heat treatment.

    5. Fabrication of Fe–Cr–Al Oxide Dispersion Strengthened PM2000 Alloy Using Selective Laser Melting (pages 541–546)

      John C. Walker, Kaj M. Berggreen, Andy R. Jones and Chris J. Sutcliffe

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800407

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rapid prototyping using the selective laser melting process has been successfully used in the manufacture of solid walls from melt sensitive mechanically alloyed PM2000 FeCrAl ODS powder. Despite melting of the powder, the technique allowed the retention of the nanoscale oxide dispersion due to the high cooling rates. Results showed that coarsening and agglomeration of ODS particles was more dependent on laser scan speed than the maximum laser power.

    6. Designing Ultrahigh Strength Steels with Good Ductility by Combining Transformation Induced Plasticity and Martensite Aging (pages 547–555)

      Dierk Raabe, Dirk Ponge, Olga Dmitrieva and Benedikt Sander

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present results on precipitation hardened ductile high strength maraging-TRIP steels with up to 1.5 GPa strength and good ductility. The alloys have low carbon content (0.01 wt% C), 9–15 wt% Mn, and additions of Ni, Ti, and Mo (1–2 wt%) for precipitation. Martensite aging leads to a surprising simultaneous increase in strength and total elongation for samples with 9 wt% Mn and 12 wt% Mn.

    7. Evaluation of Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Between Titanium and Steel (pages 556–560)

      Ahmed Elrefaey and Wolfgang Tillmann

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An investigation of microstructural development in transient liquid phase (TLP) bonds between commercially pure titanium and low carbon steel is presented in this study. Changes in the joint region and surrounding substrates were examined as a function of holding time at temperatures of 870 and 910 °C. Both interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of brazed joints were investigated to evaluate joint quality.

    8. Effect of Hydrogen on Fatigue Strength of High-Strength Steels in the VHCF Regime (pages 561–567)

      Yongde Li, Zhenguo Yang, Shouxin Li, Yangbo Liu, Shuming Chen, Weijun Hui and Yuqing Weng

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800422

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diffusible hydrogen or non-diffusible hydrogen can decrease the fatigue strength of high-strength steels. The hydrogen influence factor f(C) describes the hydrogen damage level of fatigue strength. Fatigue strength decreases with increasing non-diffusible hydrogen content in the range 1 ppm < Ci < 3.0 ppm. Fatigue strength decreases significantly with increasing diffusible hydrogen content in the range 1 ppm < Cr < 3.0 ppm, but shows almost no obvious change in the range 3.0 ppm < Cr < 10.0 ppm.

    9. Investigation of Mechanical and Microstructural Characteristics of Al–Mg Compounds (pages 568–572)

      Reimund Neugebauer, Roland Glaß, Mike Popp, Thomas Lampke, Gert Alisch and Daniela Nickel

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The presented approach of generating composites offers new possibilities for the combination of two light metal alloys into one semifinished product of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. A test device based on the forming method of lateral extrusion was designed to manufacture metallic compounds. The created interface layer is characterized by the formation of new phases and affects the mechanical properties of the whole compound.

    10. Structural Evolution during Reactive Mechanical Milling of TiC/Ti-Al Nanocomposites (pages 573–578)

      Dongdong Gu and Yifu Shen

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800440

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The microstructural development of TiC/Ti-Al nanocomposites prepared by mechanical milling of Ti, graphite, and Al powders is investigated. The structures and morphologies of the nanocomposites milled at various periods are determined by XRD, SEM, TEM and EDX-spectroscopy techniques. The mechanisms for the formation of TiC nanoparticles and Ti-Al solid solution are elucidated based on these experimental results.

    11. Physical Effects of Multipass Two-Dimensional Laser Machining of Structural Ceramics (pages 579–585)

      Anoop N. Samant and Narendra B. Dahotre

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Effect of multiple laser passes on cavities machined in structural ceramics is presented. Multiple laser passes machined cavities with reduced thermal stresses and cracks. Thermal model based on temperature dependent absorptivity and thermophysical properties along with defocusing of laser beam, multiple track induced preheating effect, and heat transfer was developed to incorporate effect of multiple passes on machined cavity. Predicted and experimentally measured values of physical attributes showed decent match.

    12. Fatigue of Alumina Under Cyclic Torsion Loading (pages 586–589)

      Thomas Schwind, Eberhard Kerscher and Karl-Heinz Lang

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800430

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The work investigates the cyclic fatigue behavior of alumina. It reveals that for cyclic torsion tests the maximum stress criterion is not valid. Cyclic torsion loading leads to a reduced lifetime compared to cyclic tensile-compression. Also an increased cyclic fatigue effect compared to four point bending tests was revealed.

    13. Thermal Investigation of Al2O3 Thin Films for Application in Cutting Operations (pages 590–594)

      Kirsten Bobzin, Nazlim Bagcivan, Philipp Immich and Mara Ewering

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800421

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Crystalline PVD γ-Al2O3 coatings offer great potential for use in high-speed cutting operations. They offer specific high temperature features, like high hot hardness and high oxidation resistance. However, the reasons for the high thermal stability of this system are not clearly understood. In this paper, the phase and oxidation stability of thin γ-Al2O3 films (as illustrated in the micrograph) are investigated.

    14. Fabrication of Periodic Microstructures in Pentaerythritol Triacrylate Through Femtosecond Laser Interference Two-Photon Polymerization (pages 595–599)

      Andrés Lasagni, Dajun Yuan, Peng Shao and Suman Das

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800405

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fabrication of periodic, two-dimensional microstructures in pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETIA) is demonstrated through femtosecond laser interference patterning. Planar arrayed structures of different periodicities and geometries were fabricated using three, four, and five interfering beams from an 800 nm ultrafast femtosecond laser. The periodic topography can be varied from isolated conical pillars to interconnected cellular structures by simple control of the interference pattern in combination with energy dose.

    15. Fracture Properties of Wood and Wood Composites (pages 600–606)

      Stefanie E. Stanzl-Tschegg

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Wood has a complex hierarchical structure and is a kind of polymeric composite with elongated cells in an amorphous matrix. Therefore, fracturing is a complicated process that is influenced by loading mode and direction, humidity, etc. Standard linear-elastic fracture mechanics methods mostly cannot sufficiently quantify fracturing, and combining fracture mechanical with structural investigations at different levels of magnification (centimeter to nanometer levels) helps obtaining insight into the fracture mechanisms.

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