Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 8

August 2009

Volume 11, Issue 8

Pages 609–689, B83–B135

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. In Situ Observation of Dynamic Recrystallization in the Bulk of Zirconium Alloy (Adv. Eng. Mater. 8/2009)

      Klaus-Dieter Liss, Ulf Garbe, Huijun Li, Thomas Schambron, Jonathan D. Almer and Kun Yan

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990021

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      The cover shows the in-situ diffraction setup. A fine synchrotron beam transmits the sample situated in a (heated) load frame and scatters into Debye-Scherrer cones. Large crystallites map onto spots onto the 2D detector rather than continuous rings. In the background, the intensity distribution of one selected reflection - here beta-Zr 110 - is plotted in color scale as a function of azimuthal angle (horizontal axis) and time (vertical axis) revealing the different states during thermo-mechanical processing. More details can be found in the article by K.-D. Liss on page 637.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Therapy with Cell Encapsulation for Substitution of Organ Function and Tumor Treatment (Adv. Eng. Mater. 8/2009)

      J. Matthias Löhr, Rainer Heuchel, Ralf Jesnowski and Christine Wallrapp

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200990022

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      The cover shows life and dead assay demonstrating living cells within a cellulose sulfate capsule. More information can be found in the article by J. M. Lohr et al. on page B129.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Spark Plasma Sintering as a Useful Technique to the Nanostructuration of Piezo-Ferroelectric Materials (pages 615–631)

      Teresa Hungría, Jean Galy and Alicia Castro

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900052

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      This review gathers together details on the processing of piezo-ferroelectric ceramic materials by spark plasma sintering. Results here reported clearly indicate that SPS is a powerful technique, opening the possibility of processing functional ceramics with a controlled (sub-micron or even nanoscale) grain size and, therefore, investigating size effects in this kind of system.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Preparation of Titanium Foams by Slip Casting of Particle Stabilized Emulsions (pages 633–636)

      Bram Neirinck, Tina Mattheys, Annabel Braem, Jan Fransaer, Omer Van der Biest and Jef Vleugels

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900074

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      Bulk titanium foams were prepared by emulsion templating during slip casting. The emulsion template was stabilized using partially hydrophobized titanium particles while the continuous phase consisted of a titanium hydride powder suspension. Sintering was performed in inert atmosphere. The use of titanium hydride resulted in lower sintering temperatures and denser, stronger struts. Both homogeneous foams with high compressive strength and structures with a gradient in pore size were obtained.

    2. In Situ Observation of Dynamic Recrystallization in the Bulk of Zirconium Alloy (pages 637–640)

      Klaus-Dieter Liss, Ulf Garbe, Huijun Li, Thomas Schambron, Jonathan D. Almer and Kun Yan

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900094

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      Dynamic recrystallization and related effects have been followed in situ and in real time while a metal undergoes rapid thermo-mechanical processing. Statistics and orientation correlations of embedded/bulk material grains were deduced from two-dimensional X-ray diffraction patterns and give deep insight into the formation of the microstructure. Applications are relevant in materials design, simulation, and in geological systems.

    3. Solid Solution or Intermetallics in a High-Entropy Alloy (pages 641–644)

      Yan Ping Wang, Bang Sheng Li and Heng Zhi Fu

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900057

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      The modulated structure of the AlCrFeCoNiCu high-entropy alloy consists of NiAl intermetallics (β′) and a (α-Fe, Cr) solid solution (β). The formation of the NiAl intermetallics greatly affects the strengths and magnetic properties of the AlxCrFeCoNiCu alloys. Evidently, the AlCrFeCoNiCu alloy cannot be treated as a solid-solution alloy.

    4. In Situ and Ex Situ Nanomechanical Analysis of Reactive Nanolayer Solder Joints (pages 645–649)

      Michael Tong, Vinay Sriram, Andrew Minor and Jenn-Ming Yang

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900102

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      The nanomechanical behavior of NiAl derived from explosively RNLs in reactive solder joints is studied using in situ nanocompression and nanoindentation. We report the direct analysis of <011> slip and discuss the role it plays in the much disputed ductility of NiAl. The hardness, modulus, and residual stress in the NiAl layer are studied by load-displacement curve analysis.

    5. Neutron Diffraction Measurement of Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Processed Nanocomposite Surface Layer (pages 650–653)

      Hanbing Xu, Camden R. Hubbard, Ke An, Zhili Feng, Xun-Li Wang and Jun Qu

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900065

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      FSP is used to introduce Al2O3 nano-sized particles to an Al 6061 alloy surface to form a hard, strong, and wear-resistant Al-Al2O3 nanocomposite layer. The residual stresses in the FSP zones (with and without Al2O3 particles) have been quantitatively analyzed using neutron diffraction. Results indicated tensile macro-level residual stresses in all three directions with peak values around 100 MPa longitudinally.

    6. Hardness Variation and Strain Distribution in Magnesium Alloy AZ31 Processed by Multi-pass Caliber Rolling (pages 654–658)

      Tadanobu Inoue, Hidetoshi Somekawa and Toshiji Mukai

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900103

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      The evolution of microstructure and hardness with equivalent strain was studied in magnesium alloy AZ31 bars fabricated using a process of multi-pass caliber rolling at 473 K. The inhomogeneity of hardness throughout the cross section in the rolled bars was very similar to that of the strain predicted from FE simulation. The caliber rolling produced a fine-grain structure below 2.5 µm in a bulk sample with a length of over 1000 mm.

    7. Activation Mechanism and Infiltration Kinetic for Pressureless Melt Infiltration of Ti Activated Al2O3 Preforms by High Melting Alloy (pages 659–666)

      Srdan Vasić, Bernard Grobéty, Jakob Kuebler and Thomas Graule

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900101

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      The infiltration mechanism of X3CrNi13-4 in titanium activated porous alumina preforms has been studied. Investigations revealed isolated steel-covered titanium particles beyond the infiltration front. The only transport path possible for the steel to form such wetted islands is through the gas phase. Supersaturation due to the mixing of the steel gas phase with the titanium rich gas phase over the activator particle surfaces is proposed as condensation mechanism. Progressive condensation leads to the formation of a melt network, which serves as pathway for the original steel melt to infiltrate the preforms and to fill the remaining pore space in the non-wetting X3CrNi13-4/Ti-Al2O3 sytem.

    8. Characterizations of Magnetron Sputtered CrSiN/ZrN Multilayer Coatings—from Structure to Tribological Behaviors (pages 667–673)

      Zhiguo Zhang, Olivier Rapaud, Nathalie Allain, David Mercs, Mira Baraket, Chuang Dong and Christian Coddet

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900051

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      In this study, CrSiN/ZrN multilayer coatings were prepared by a reactive magnetron sputtering system. The evolution of their microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties as a function of the multilayer modulation period was studied. The results showed that the multilayers had a good modulation structure. CrSiN and ZrN individual layer in the multilayers were “amorphous-like” and amorphous structure, respectively.

    9. Investigations on Nanolaminated TiZrN/CrN as a Tribological PVD Hard Coating for Incremental Sheet Forming Tools (pages 674–679)

      Kirsten Bobzin, Nazlim Bagcivan, Mara Ewering and Carsten Warnke

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900088

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      PVD coated metal forming tools may enormously reduce tool and work piece wear, friction and forming capacities. A PVD deposited TiZrN/CrN + CrN material system is presented for application on incremental sheet forming tools. This work reports on coating process development and tribological investigations leading to a clear friction reduction and wear protection.

    10. Removal of the α-Case Layer from Precision-Cast Cellular TiAl6Nb7 to be Used for Biomedical Applications (pages 680–684)

      Teodolito Guillén, Arne Ohrndorf, Hans-Jürgen Christ, Katrin Hagemann, Andreas Bührig-Polaczek and Ulrich Krupp

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900097

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      The present work deals with the chemical removal of the α-case layer formed during precision casting of cellular TiAl6Nb7 sponges for biomedical applications. The major part of the brittle α-case layer can be attributed to chemical reaction between titanium and the investment mold components. To improve the ductility of the cell struts by eliminating the brittle surface, a pickling-vibration treatment was developed by which the α-case layer is chemically removed.

    11. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) of Poly(D,L lactide) (PDLLA) on Three Dimensional Bioglass® Structures (pages 685–689)

      Valeria Califano, Francesco Bloisi, Luciano R. M. Vicari, Darmawati M. Yunos, Xanthipi Chatzistavrou and Aldo R. Boccaccini

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900092

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      Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) was used to coat Bioglass-based tissue engineering scaffolds with poly(D,L lactide). The polymer penetrated to some extent from the surface producing a graded porous composite material. This structure can be beneficial for application in osteochondral tissue engineering, where composite scaffolds are required exhibiting two distinct regions, one for cartilage integration (biopolymer) and the other one for bone contact (bioactive glass).

  6. Advanced Biomaterials

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Interaction of Osteoblasts with Macroporous Scaffolds Made of PLLA/PCL Blends Modified with Collagen and Hydroxyapatite (pages B83–B88)

      Halil Murat Aydin, Ying Yang, Thomas Kohler, Alicia El Haj, Ralph Müller and Erhan Pişkin

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900030

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      To mimic natural bone, a tissue engineering scaffold was developed that combines inorganic and organic components of natural bone, its pore diameter, and its interconnected structure. Collagen was coated onto a PLLA/PCL scaffold and hydroxyapatite particles were delivered throughout the polymer matrix much more easily than with other techniques thanks to the porosity-forming method of combining two porogens, namely, salt leaching and supercritical CO2 extraction. Compared with other coating techniques, this procedure can be performed readily and homogeneous 3D hydroxyapatite coating was achieved.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. In vivo Performance of Osteoactivated Cellulose-Based Scaffolds in Bony Critical-Size Defects (pages B89–B97)

      Sabine Ponader, Heike Brandt, Eleftherios Vairaktaris, Cornelius von Wilmowsky, Wolfgang Göthel, Rainer Lutz, Karl A. Schlegel, Friedrich W. Neukam, Peter Greil, Frank A. Müller and Emeka Nkenke

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800437

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      Cellulose-based scaffolds osteoactivated with different sodium silicate coatings (pure and bisphosphonate or strontium enriched respectively) can serve as long-term depots for a slow drug-release. Thus they are a promising and cost-saving alternative to the short-lived drug delivery systems of recombinant bone promoting proteins.

    2. In vitro Chemical Reactivity of Doped Bioactive Glasses: an Original Approach by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy (pages B98–B105)

      Elodie Dietrich, Hassane Oudadesse, Marie Le Floch, Bruno Bureau and Thierry Gloriant

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800400

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      The control of the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, as well as the chemical reactivity of melt-derived glasses is an important state in the biomaterials field. The present work explores the local structure of bioactive glasses before and after in vitro assays in simulated body fluid. This study by solid-state MAS–NMR constitutes an original approach to the understanding of the bioactivity process.

    3. A Method for the Real-Time Observation of Endodermal Cell Behavior on Micropatterned Surfaces (pages B106–B113)

      David C. Trimbach, Dimitry Spitkovsky, Bora Garipcan, Sergiy Zankovych, Cornelia Böttinger, Yaki Duan, Jürgen Hescheler and Klaus D. Jandt

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200900083

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      Surface chemistry and geometry have a strong influence on adhesion and proliferation of various cell types, including human embryonic stem cells (ES). Visceral endoderm like cells (END-2) is an important cell line which induces ES cells to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. In this study, we have investigated the effect of surface chemistry and geometry on the END-2 cell adhesion and proliferation on gold surface.

    4. A Short-Term Bioresorbable Bone Filling Material Based on Hydroxyapatite, Chitosan, and Oxidized Starch Tested in a Novel Orthotopic Metaphyseal Mouse Model (pages B114–B121)

      Elias Volkmer, Bettina Hoffmann, Andreas Kokott, Inga Drosse, Anna-Katharina Neunhoeffer, Florian Haasters, Sebastian Seitz, Michael Stengele, Günther Ziegler, Wolf Mutschler and Matthias Schieker

      Version of Record online: 29 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800351

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      Despite significant advances in orthopedic surgery, no perfect bioresorbable bone-filling material has yet been clinically established. A new candidate material based on hydroxyapatite, chitosan and oxidised starch, which has the potential to covalently bind to bone in a watery milieu was tested in a new murine model. A special focus lies on the in vivo biocompatibility and bioresorbability of the new material.

    5. Highly Porous Nano- and Microstructured Films Loaded with Bioactive Agents for Biomedical Applications: Structure—Release Profile Effects (pages B122–B128)

      Adi Rachelson and Meital Zilberman

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800439

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      The current study focuses on the nanostructuring of our new drug-eluting porous films and its effect on the drug release profile of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. Nanostructuring was obtained using both the dispersion and the condensation methods of emulsion processing. These new highly porous nanostructured films can be used as basic elements of various drug-eluting medical devices.

  8. Advanced Biomaterials

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Advanced Biomaterials
    8. Communications
    9. Advanced Biomaterials
    1. Therapy with Cell Encapsulation for Substitution of Organ Function and Tumor Treatment (pages B129–B135)

      J. Matthias Löhr, Rainer Heuchel, Ralf Jesnowski and Christine Wallrapp

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200800409

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      Cell encapsulation represents an innovative technique. However, clinical applications are sparse. Most experiments and clinical studies have been performed with either alginate or cellulose sulfate capsules, containing several cell lines and a broad variety of applications, ranging all the way from substitution for impaired organ function and release of cytokines or growth factors to gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. A few clinical studies have been conducted and/or are under way.

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