Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 12 Issue 5

May 2010

Volume 12, Issue 5

Pages 333–422, B133–B183

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Cover Picture: (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2010)

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090010

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      The INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials in Saarbruecken engages in fundamental and applied materials research-from a chemical, physical and biological perspective. The cover highlights examples of INM's research which is presented in this special issue. The front cover shows biomineralization using the example of crystals embedded in the outer tissue of onion bulbs (courtesy of Birgit Heiland, INM). The back side demonstrates an in situ adhesion experiment in a scanning electron microscope (courtesy of Andreas S. Schneider/Anika Weber, INM).

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Back Cover (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2010)

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090011

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  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2010)

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090012

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Editorial (pages 333–334)

      Eduard Arzt

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000112

  5. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Functional Adhesive Surfaces with “Gecko” Effect: The Concept of Contact Splitting (pages 335–348)

      Marleen Kamperman, Elmar Kroner, Aránzazu del Campo, Robert M. McMeeking and Eduard Arzt

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000104

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      A key strategy in natural attachment systems is the use of “fibrillar” surfaces to produce high adhesion forces. This review critically examines the principles behind fibrillar adhesion from a contact mechanics perspective.

    2. Sol–Gel Derived Nanocomposites for Optical Applications (pages 349–361)

      Peter W. de Oliveira, Carsten Becker-Willinger and Mohammad H. Jilavi

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000116

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      In this paper, the application of nanocomposites and nanostructured materials for the fabrication of optical elements is reviewed. It is focused on the productions of nanocomposites and nanostructured materials which are based on wet chemical sol–gel process. After describing the background of topics, the production of these materials which are developed and improved at INM are reported, summarized, and discussed. The selected topics for reviewing include polymer matrix nanocompoites, GRIN composite materials for diffractive optics, refractive optical elements with intrinsic scratch resistance, interference coatings, GRIN optical components, and micro-optic embossing.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Nanotribology – Fundamental Studies of Friction and Plasticity (pages 362–367)

      Roland Bennewitz, Katrin Brörmann, Philip Egberts, Nitya Nand Gosvami, Florian Hausen and Christian Held

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000088

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      Nanotribology explores the mechanical properties of materials at small length scales, where deviations from the scaling laws of macroscopic descriptions are observed. Atomic force microscopy is introduced as an important instrument in nanotribology for imaging friction contrasts on heterogeneous surfaces, for quantitative friction studies, and for the observation of single dislocation processes in plastic deformation. As an example, the figure shows the friction contrast between SiC and graphene. Friction studies using microstructured surfaces are presented as an attempt to bridge the gap between nanotribological and macroscopic friction studies.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Silver Nanoparticles with Controlled Dispersity and Their Assembly into Superstructures (pages 368–373)

      Karsten Moh, Ulf Werner, Marcus Koch and Michael Veith

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000110

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      In this study, ligand stabilized silver nanoparticles with nearly the same size but different size distributions were synthesized by a wet chemical approach. Their ability to form regular patterns via self-assembly was studied qualitatively by electron microscopy and extensive image analysis. The results suggest that it is not only the size distribution but also the particle density and the particle substrate interaction which strongly influence the degree of ordering.

    2. Synthesis of Monodisperse Silica Nanoparticles Dispersable in Non-Polar Solvents (pages 374–378)

      Eoin Murray, Philip Born, Anika Weber and Tobias Kraus

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000108

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      Three synthetic routes to hydrophobic silica nanoparticles are compared in this paper: Firstly, the established Stöber process is used to synthesize monodisperse silica particles with diameters of 15–25 nm, which are rendered hydrophobic with octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODTMS); secondly, silica particles with diameters of 15–50 nm are prepared using a one-pot synthesis in which tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) is hydrolyzed by an amino acid and the resulting particles are coated with ODTMS; and lastly a novel, direct approach is introduced to prepare hydrophobic organosilica nanoparticles using ODTMS as the single silica source.

    3. Dielectric Properties of a Printed Sol–Gel Matrix Composite (pages 379–384)

      Tobias Lehnert, Petra Herbeck-Engel, Jens Adam, Gabi Klein, Terho Kololuoma and Michael Veith

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000109

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      We present a printable dielectric composite material composed of ferroelectric high permittivity particles (BaTiO3) bonded by a mainly inorganic sol–gel derived network. The exemplary optimization of the properties by varying the sol–gel precursor illustrates the potential of sol–gel chemistry for printable functional materials. An operational gravure printed capacitor including printed silver electrodes is presented. The measured dielectric constants are among the highest reported in literature for low temperature cured films with moderate dissipation factors. Besides these promising dielectric properties, this composite film shows a ferroelectric response.

    4. Strength Effects in Micropillars of a Dispersion Strengthened Superalloy (pages 385–388)

      Baptiste Girault, Andreas S. Schneider, Carl P. Frick and Eduard Arzt

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000089

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      This paper investigates the uniaxial compression behavior of highly alloyed, focused ion beam (FIB) manufactured micropillars, ranging from 200 to 4000 nm in diameter. The material used was the single-crystalline Ni-based oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy Inconel MA6000. High critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) values were found independent of pillar diameter. This suggests that the deformation behavior is primarily controlled by the internal obstacle spacing, overwhelming any pillar-size-dependent mechanisms such as dislocation source action or starvation.

    5. Bi-Stable Adhesion of a Surface with a Dimple (pages 389–397)

      Robert M. McMeeking, Lifeng Ma and Eduard Arzt

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000091

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      A new adhesive system of dimpled surfaces is proposed, derived from a contact mechanics model in which the surfaces of half-spaces attract each other, giving rise to adhesion energy. It is found that detachments within dimples, as depicted in the figure, can be unstable and then will either grow or shrink spontaneously. It is shown that this phenomenon can lead to a new bi-stable adhesive system in which weak adhesion can be converted to strong adhesion by the application of pressure.

    6. Adhesion Characteristics of PDMS Surfaces During Repeated Pull-Off Force Measurements (pages 398–404)

      Elmar Kroner, Roya Maboudian and Eduard Arzt

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000090

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      In this paper we report on the effect of repeated pull-off force measurements on the adhesion behavior of PDMS (polymer kit Sylgard 184, Dow Corning). A decrease in pull-off force with increase in number of test cycles is found until a plateau is reached. The initial value and the rate of change in pull-off force strongly depend on the sample preparation procedure, including curing time and cross-linking. It is proposed that the behavior is due to steady coverage of the probe with free oligomers. The results are crucial for developing reusable, durable, and residue-free bioinspired adhesives.

    7. Micropatterned Polymer Surfaces and Cellular Response of Dictyostelium (pages 405–411)

      Magdalena Eder, Natalie Concors, Eduard Arzt and Ingrid M. Weiss

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000092

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      Cell accumulation and differentiation of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum shows that gecko inspired micropatterned surfaces can be used as a biophysical tool to improve our understanding of multicellular tissues and biofilm formation.

    8. Quill Embroidery: A Case Study in the Mechanics of Biological Materials (pages 412–416)

      Ingrid M. Weiss and Helmut O. K. Kirchner

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000105

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      Detail of contemporary quill embroidery. The technique exploits the remarkable mechanical properties of the cortical shell of the peacock's feathers.

    9. STED Microscopy to Monitor Agglomeration of Silica Particles Inside A549 Cells (pages 417–422)

      Sabrina Schübbe, Christian Cavelius, Christian Schumann, Marcus Koch and Annette Kraegeloh

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000093

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      The behavior of SiO2 particles exposed to human lung epithelial cells is investigated by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. This method enables high resolution imaging below the optical diffraction barrier and is used for investigating particle–particle as well as particle–cell interactions. The improvement in resolution, compared to conventional confocal microscopy, allows studying of agglomeration of silica particles inside the cells over time. The results indicate that particles only agglomerate within the cytoplasm while no particles penetrate into the nucleus.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Inside Front Cover (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2010)

      Liping Tong, Dixon T. K. Kwok, Huaiyu Wang, Lijun Wu and Paul K. Chu

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090013

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      Surface roughness is another important factor impacting cell behavior and AFM is utilized to determine the surface morphology. The Cover shows the surface morphology measured by AFM obtained from O2 PIII PTFE. More details can be found in the article of Paul K. Chu on p. B163.

  9. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. An X-ray Spectromicroscopy Study of Albumin Adsorption to Crosslinked Polyethylene Oxide Films (pages B133–B138)

      Bonnie O. Leung, Adam P. Hitchcock, John L. Brash, Andreas Scholl and Andrew Doran

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980050

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      Synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) is used to characterize the near surface composition of polyethylene oxide (PEO; red in the figure) combined with 1.5, 5, and 10 wt.-% pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA; green) crosslinker. It is found that as the concentration of PETA increases, it becomes the dominant component in the top 10 nm of the film surface. The same surfaces are also exposed to human serum albumin (HSA) and a positive correlation is found between levels of PETA and HSA at the surface.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Antheraea assama Silk Fibroin-Based Functional Scaffold with Enhanced Blood Compatibility for Tissue Engineering Applications (pages B139–B147)

      Naresh Kasoju and Utpal Bora

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980055

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      We report the fabrication of an Antheraea assama fibroin-based functional scaffold with controlled architecture and desired surface chemistry. Initially a 3D scaffold with biomimetic architecture was fabricated and subsequently the surface of the scaffold was made blood compatible by a simple sulfation reaction. This is the first report describing the a) sulfation of fibroin isolated from a non-mulberry silkworm, b) use of fibroin in 3D scaffold form for sulfation reaction, and, c) detailed tests to elucidate changes in the biological properties of sulfated fibroin and to evaluate its use in tissue engineering.

    2. Biphasic Resorbable Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for Bone Implants and Local Alendronate Delivery (pages B148–B155)

      Shashwat S. Banerjee, Amit Bandyopadhyay and Susmita Bose

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980072

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      A novel biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic composed of tricalcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate is synthesized to tailor the mechanical (see image) and bioresorable properties. The biphasic ceramic have excellent biodegradation properties, revealing the potential of this system to be used as a resorbable bone graft material.

    3. Therapeutic Window for Bioactive Nanocomposites Fabricated by Laser Ablation in Polymer-Doped Organic Liquids (pages B156–B162)

      Anne Hahn, Timo Stöver, Gerrit Paasche, Marian Löbler, Katrin Sternberg, Henning Rohm and Stephan Barcikowski

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980071

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      Nanomaterials are fabricated using laser ablation of silver and copper in polymer-doped organic liquids thus allowing to produce customized drug release systems. A strategy is shown to determine the therapeutic window for cells relevant for cochlear implant electrodes, defined by the viability of L929 fibroblasts, PC12 neuronal cells, and spiral ganglion cells on different concentrations of silver and copper ions. Hexane doped with 1% silicone resin is found to be an appropriate to fabricate nanocomposites with a homogenous distribution of nanoparticles. The copper nanoparticle content of 0.1 wt% of the silicone composite releases ion concentrations which fit the therapeutic window.

    4. Surface Structures and Osteoblast Activity on Biomedical Polytetrafluoroethylene Treated by Long-Pulse, High-Frequency Oxygen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (pages B163–B169)

      Liping Tong, Dixon T. K. Kwok, Huaiyu Wang, Lijun Wu and Paul K. Chu

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080012

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      Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a biologically safe polymer used widely in clinical medicine including oral and orthopedic surgery. However, the high bio-inertness of PTFE has hampered wider applications in the biomedical fields. In this work, we extend the treatment time in long-pulse, high-frequency oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation of PTFE and a more superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 160° is created. Our results suggest that the rough surface caused by energetic ion bombardment in concert with plasma modification is the predominant factor of the enhanced cell attachment and growth.

    5. Influence of Heat Treatments on In Vitro Degradation Behavior of Mg-6Zn Alloy Studied by Electrochemical Measurements (pages B170–B174)

      Shaoxiang Zhang, Jianan Li, Yang Song, Changli Zhao, Chaoying Xie and Xiaonong Zhang

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980052

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      We design and fabricate biomedical Mg-6Zn, which contains no toxic aluminum or rare earth metals and is biocompatible, but has a degradation rate that is a bit fast. In this study, we attempt to improve the degradation behavior of Mg-6Zn by heat treatments. The results show that the heat treatments indeed greatly alter the microstructure and corrosion behavior, and are considered to be a promising way to adjust the degradation rate. This is important for Mg-6Zn as a biodegradable material.

  11. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Sensors for the Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Contamination in Water for Human Use (pages B175–B178)

      Raquel Barbosa Queirós, J. Paulo Noronha, M. Goreti F. Sales and Gerardo González Aguilar

      Article first published online: 6 MAY 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980029

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      The deterioration of water quality by Cyanobacteria cause outbreaks and epidemics associated with harmful diseases in humans and animals because of the toxins that they release. Highly specific recognition molecules, such as MIPs are developed to quantify microcystins in waters for human use and shown to be of great potential in the analysis of these kinds of sample. The obtained results were auspicious, with the detection limit found being of the same order of magnitude as the guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization.

  12. Research Article

    1. Top of page
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    3. Back Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Research News
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communication
    11. Research Articles
    12. Communication
    13. Research Article
    1. Functionalized Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Lipase Immobilization (pages B179–B183)

      I. V. Pavlidis, T. Tsoufis, A. Enotiadis, D. Gournis and H. Stamatis

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980021

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      The non-covalent immobilization of lipase B from Candida antarctica on functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (see image) is investigated. Immobilized lipases exhibited high catalytic activity and increased storage and operational stability. The catalytic behaviour of the immobilized enzyme depends on the terminal group of the carbon nanotubes, the concentration of the enzyme and the immobilization method employed.

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