Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Advanced Engineering Materials

Special Issue: 1st Sino-German Symposium on Advanced Biomedical Nanostructures

September, 2010

Volume 12, Issue 9

Pages 829–953, B396–B576

Issue edited by: Klaus Jandt

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 9/2010)

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090024

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sug. 1: 3D-FIB tomography of the Ti(C,N)- κ-Al2O3 transition of novel CVD multilayer systems, showing the morphology and 3D-distribution of selected Ti(C,N) grains, which penetrate in the κ-Al2O3 top-surface layer.

      Sug. 2: 3D-FIB tomography reconstruction of Ti(C,N) grains showing their morphology and spatial distribution. Note: the κ-Al2O3 top-layer was removed for better visualization of the protruded Ti(C,N) grains.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 9/2010)

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090025

  3. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Sintering of Magnesium (pages 829–836)

      Martin Wolff, Thomas Ebel and Michael Dahms

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000038

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      For a long time the sintering of Mg was known as infeasible (1), but now the current research, shown in this paper, highlights ways and means to accomplish the sintering of Mg and its alloys (2). Through the use of getter material and a labyrinth like crucible configuration, the sintering to open porous as well as closed dense parts could be accomplished. This work constitute a cornerstone for the prospective MIM of Mg and the future production of biodegradable Mg-bone implants.

    2. Enhancing Fracture Toughness of Magnesium Alloy by Formation of Low-Angle Grain Boundary Structure (pages 837–842)

      Hidetoshi Somekawa, Alok Singh, Tadanobu Inoue and Toshiji Mukai

      Version of Record online: 16 JUL 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000050

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      The effect of the low-angle grain structure on the mechanical properties and deformation behaviors was investigated using Mg-Al-Zn alloys, which were produced by caliber rolling. The deformed microstructure observations showed the {10–12} deformation twins were formed at the head of the crack-tip during fracture toughness even in the fine-grained structures; however, the present caliber rolled alloys showed high strength and fracture toughness balance that resulted from the high fraction of low-angle grain boundaries, which did not become the origin of the micro-void formation.

    3. Production of Very Fine Grained Mg–3%Al–1%Zn Alloy by Continuous Extrusion Forming (CONFORM) (pages 843–847)

      Youliang He, Fei Gao, Baoyun Song, Jian Li, Rong Fu and Guiming Wu

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000007

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      An industrial CONFORM machine was employed to produce very fine grained (∼2µm) Mg–3%Al–1%Zn alloy rods from cast feedstocks (grain size ∼150µm). The produced microstructure shows superplastic characteristics at elevated temperature and low strain rate. The successful production of Mg–3%Al–1%Zn alloy using the CONFORM process also provides an alternative forming method for Mg alloys in addition to the conventional rolling, forging, or extrusion routines.

    4. Roll-Bonded Titanium/Stainless-Steel Couples. Part 3: Adhesion Properties (pages 848–854)

      Sebastian Dziallach, Wolfgang Bleck and Matthias Köhler

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000133

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      This work presents adhesion properties of roll-bonded and heat treated titanium–stainless steel couples determined by means of tensile shear tests and peeling tests. The developed testing methods will be described and the applicability on material couples will be discussed. The determined adhesion forces and resistances were correlated with the interface microstructure of the material couple. Hence, the optimum annealing conditions for maximum adhesion force can be determined. The determined adhesion properties in this paper and the already published results to the diffusion behavior and mechanical properties give important measuring data to make a final evaluation of the material couple with regard to a technical application.

    5. Hexagonal Honeycombs with Zero Poisson's Ratios and Enhanced Stiffness (pages 855–862)

      Joseph N. Grima, Ludovica Oliveri, Daphne Attard, Brian Ellul, Ruben Gatt, Gianluca Cicala and Giuseppe Recca

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000140

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      Honeycombs constructed from arrow shaped units having alternate layers of re-entrant and non re-entrant sub units are studied using FEM and analytical modeling and are shown to exhibit zero Poisson's ratio, enhanced stiffness, and a natural ability to form cylindrical shaped structures. These properties make such honeycombs superior to conventional and even re-entant honeycombs in certain practical applications.

    6. Spark Plasma Sintering, Microstructures, and Mechanical Properties of Macroporous Titanium Foams (pages 863–872)

      Faming Zhang, Eileen Otterstein and Eberhard Burkel

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000106

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      Macroporous Ti foams with porosity of 30–70% and pore size of 125–800µm were fabricated by using spark plasma sintering and NaCl dissolution methods. The Ti foams consist of interconnected macropores with square cross sections as shown in the figure. The plateau stress and Young's modulus agree with the Gibson–Ashby models, and coarsely obey linear declines with the pore size increase and exponential decays with the increase of porosity.

    7. Oxidation Limited Lifetime of Ni-Base Metal Foams in the Temperature Range 700–900 °C (pages 873–883)

      Anton Chyrkin, Sebastian Leif Schulze, Javier Pirón-Abellán, Wolfgang Bleck, Lorenz Singheiser and Willem Joseph Quadakkers

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000139

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      Highly porous metal foams produced from a NiCr-base alloy are tested with respect to their high temperature oxidation resistance in air. Breakaway oxidation, i.e., accelerated growth of Ni-rich oxides after a critical chromium depletion of the foam particles, is shown to be responsible for deterioration of mechanical stability of the material. A lifetime model based on calculation of Cr consumption by the oxidation process is presented correlating the metal foam lifetime with its microstructure at high temperatures.

    8. Processing of Ceramic Foams with Hierarchical Cell Structure (pages 884–892)

      Bruno Ceron-Nicolat, Tobias Fey and Peter Greil

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000114

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      Silicon carbide-based cellular ceramics characterized by a hierarchical pore structure were processed. An open-cellular PU foam template with a mean cell density of 10 pores per inch (ppi), equivalent to a cell diameter of 4 mm and a strut thickness of 250 µm, was coated with a primary SiC slurry. Cross-linking of a polysiloxane binder at 190 h resulted in a SiC filled reticulated thermoset foam (first generation).

    9. Hot-Pressed ZrB2 Ceramics With Composite Additives of Zr and B4C (pages 893–898)

      Xin-Gang Wang, Wei-Ming Guo, Yan-Mei Kan and Guo-Jun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000012

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      A new approach was proposed to prepare dense ZrB2 ceramics by forming refractory second phases during sintering process through adding composite additives of Zr and B4C. Using the combination of Zr and B4C additives at a 3:1 molar ratio could greatly improve the densification of hot-pressed ZrB2 ceramics compared to additive-free ceramics.

    10. Synthesis of Functional Nanomaterials via Colloidal Mask Templating and Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) (pages 899–905)

      A. Dolatshahi-Pirouz, T. Jensen, T. Vorup-Jensen, Rikke Bech, J. Chevallier, F. Besenbacher, M. Foss and D.S. Sutherland

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000120

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      Materials containing well separated nanostructures with delicate nanocues are very promising as biomaterial surfaces for stem cell therapy, orthopedic implants, and as coatings in optical devices. Here functional coatings with separated brush columns are fabricated via colloidal particle mask templating and glancing angle deposition (GLAD). The colloids serve as nucleation sites for the growth of brush columns.

    11. Low Temperature Deformation Detwinning—A Reverse Mode of Twinning (pages 906–911)

      Yan-Dong Wang, Wenjun Liu, Lei Lu, Yang Ren, Zhi-Hua Nie, Jonathan Almer, Sheng Cheng, Yong-Feng Shen, Liang Zuo, Peter K. Liaw and Ke Lu

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000123

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      The synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction technique provides the direct experimental evidence for low temperature detwinning of copper nanoscale twins—a reverse twinning mechanism. We believe this deformation mechanism is distinct from the twinning activities previously reported in metals deformed at low temperatures or during thermal annealing. This finding indicates that the highly moveable nanoscale twin boundaries contribute greatly to the accommodation of plastic strains.

    12. Nucleation Kinetics and Microstructure Evolution of Traveling ASTM F75 Droplets (pages 912–919)

      Sudesna Roy and Teiichi Ando

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000136

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      A method is devised for the prediction and control of the nucleation kinetics and solidification microstructure of traveling droplets of a cobalt-base biocompatible alloy ASTM F75. Mono-size droplets produced by the uniform-droplet spray process (a capillary jet breakup process) are quenched on substrates at different flight distances to determine nucleation distance from the splat morphology. Using the nucleation temperatures estimated from the splat morphology as references, the nucleation kinetics of F75 droplets is predicted and presented in the form of a continuous-cooling transformation diagram.

    13. The Effect of Stress Relaxation on the Microstructure and Hardness Evolution of Pure Amorphous-Carbon and C/Ti Multilayer Films (pages 920–925)

      Chunfu Hong, Jiangping Tu, Changdong Gu, Xiaohua Zheng, Dongguang Liu, Ruiling Li and Scott X Mao

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000102

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      Pure amorphous-carbon and C/Ti multilayer films are prepared by pulsed-laser deposition. The films are deposited at fluences of 7 or 10Jcm−2 with two durations (35 and 120min) to vary their thicknesses. The thin films have an sp3 bond ratio and hardness dependant on the fluence. The thick films delaminate and provide a more-nanosized graphitic microstructure and have a lower sp3 bond ratio and hardness than the thin films, which correlates with stress relaxation. The C/Ti multilayer films can be deposited at large thicknesses due to the low internal stress.

    14. Formation of Aluminum Nitride Coatings at Low Temperature (pages 926–928)

      Andrew Adaszko and Timothy Sercombe

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000128

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      A method has been developed that produces an AlN coating on an aluminum substrate at 540°C. It builds on the techniques previously reported, but uses aluminum powder which reduced the reaction time and required less stringent atmosphere control. Initially, the nitride formed as a shell round the particles and was accompanied by the filling of the interstitial pores by a secondary aluminum. At longer times, both the powder and the secondary aluminum nitrided, resulting in a relatively dense coating.

    15. Design and Characterization of Novel Wear Resistant Multilayer CVD Coatings with Improved Adhesion Between Al2O3 and Ti(C,N) (pages 929–934)

      José Garcia, Reinhard Pitonak, Ronald Weißenbacher, Arno Köpf, Flavio Soldera, Sebastián Suarez, Federico Miguel, Haroldo Pinto, Aleksander Kostka and Frank Mücklich

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000130

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      The microstructure and cutting performance of multilayer CVD coatings with a novel transition between the Ti(C,N) and the Al2O3 layer are investigated. 3D-FIB tomography shows the formation of protruded Ti(C,N) grains with a particular architecture, which penetrate into the Al2O3 top-layer, providing a mechanical anchoring between both layers. Cutting tools coated with the novel CVD multilayer show dramatic improvement of cutting performance, due to reduced crater and flank wear and improved adherence between the Ti(C,N) and the Al2O3 top-layer.

    16. Nanoindentation, Modeling, and Toughening Effects of Zirconia/Organic Nanolaminates (pages 935–941)

      Igor Zlotnikov, Avraham Dorogoy, Doron Shilo, Irena Gotman and Elazar Y. Gutmanas

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000143

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      Bioinspired zirconia/organic nanolaminates are synthesized by PVD sputtering of ZrO2 on organic films deposited by a polyelectrolyte based layer-by-layer technique (LbL). Nanoindentation and FE modeling is used to obtain the mechanical properties of the structure. Sharp decrease of calculated driving force for crack propagation confirms the toughening effect of the organic phase and nanolaminar architecture.

    17. Failure of Alumina in Torsion Tests (pages 942–947)

      Thomas Schwind, Stefan Fünfschilling, Eberhard Kerscher, Karl-Heinz Lang, Rainer Oberacker, Michael J. Hoffmann and Theo Fett

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000126

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      Fatigue behavior under cyclic torsion loading shows a complicated dependency between the number of cycles to failure Nf and the height of the applied load σappl. Whereas the high-stress region near the torsion strength can be interpreted as normal mode-I failure of randomly oriented surface cracks, the steep part may be understood as the consequence of friction degradation at grinding cracks which are under pure mode-II and mode-III loading. At lowest loads, quasi-static subcritical crack growth support has to be expected with its commonly higher load exponents.

    18. Toughness Measurement of Cemented Carbides with Chevron-Notched Three-Point Bend Test (pages 948–952)

      Xin Deng, Jon Bitler, Krishan K. Chawla and Burton R. Patterson

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000064

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      Plane-strain fracture toughness is a critical property of metal matrix composites. In this study, we have investigated the method involving three-point bend test of a chevron-notched specimen to evaluate fracture toughness of cemented carbides. A comprehensive formula is presented for a wide range of test dimensions and chevron notch angles. It offers an accurate, convenient, and practical method for toughness testing of cemented carbide, and other metal matrix composites.

  4. Book Review

    1. Top of page
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    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Advanced Biomaterials (page 953)

      Thomas Scheibel

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000151

  5. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. (Advanced Biomaterials 7/2010)

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090026

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      The siliceous spicules from sponges (diameter approximately 25 μm) are fabricated enzymatically. These star-like skeletal structures act as light optical fibers. It is amazing that those waveguides still retain that property after 400 million years; (a fossil from the famous Chinese fossil area Chengjiang).

  6. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
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    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. (Advanced Biomaterials 7/2010)

      Jun Yang, Li-Ping Zhao, Zheng-Qin Yin, Ning Hu, Jie Chen, Ting-Yu Li, Irina Svir and Xiao-Lin Zheng

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201090027

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      Microelectrode array-based cell electrofusion. For more information please see the aticle by J. Yang et al. on page 398.

  7. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
  8. Editorial

    1. Top of page
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    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
  9. Guest Editorial

    1. Top of page
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    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
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    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Cooperation between China and Germany (page B397)

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080046

  10. Reviews

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    4. Communications
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    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Chip-Based Cell Electrofusion (pages B398–B405)

      Jun Yang, Li-Ping Zhao, Zheng-Qin Yin, Ning Hu, Jie Chen, Ting-Yu Li, Irina Svir and Xiao-Lin Zheng

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980063

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      Cell fusion is a rapid developing cytobiological method utilizing engineering approaches to fuse two or more cells into one hybrid. The hybrid cell can be further cultivated to a new species or a cell-engineering product. After many years of development, cell fusion is becoming a powerful tool for biological, medical and agricultural research. At present, electrofusion is widely used for cell-fusion due to its high efficiency and maneuverability. On-chip cell electrofusion is receiving more and more attention due to its superior performance. Some microchip devices, such as the microelectrode array-based electrofusion chip, have been developed for high-throughput fusion (see graphic).

    2. Use of Nanoparticles to Study and Manipulate Plant cells (pages B406–B412)

      Kai Eggenberger, Nicole Frey, Benjamin Zienicke, Jan Siebenbrock, Tobias Schunck, Reinhard Fischer, Stefan Bräse, Esther Birtalan, Thomas Nann and Peter Nick

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080009

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      Fluorescence microscopy has developed into a key technology of the postgenomic era in biology, because it combines structural information with molecular specificity. However, the resolution of this approach is limited by bleaching and optical cross-reference of the fluorescent labels. Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) provide excellent bleaching stability and tunable emission spectra, and therefore would be an excellent alternative to overcome these limitations.

  11. Research Article

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    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Long-Circulating and Passively Tumor-Targeted Polymer-Drug Conjugates Improve the Efficacy and Reduce the Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy (pages B413–B421)

      Twan Lammers, Vladimir Subr, Karel Ulbrich, Peter Peschke, Peter E. Huber, Wim E. Hennink, Gert Storm and Fabian Kiessling

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980046

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      Using HPMA copolymers as a model drug carrier, and doxorubicin and gemcitabine as model drugs, we here show that long-circulating and passively tumor-targeted polymeric drug carriers interact synergistically with radiotherapy, with radiotherapy improving the tumor accumulation of the copolymers, and with the copolymers improving both the efficacy and the toxicity of radiochemotherapy. These findings indicate that “carrier-based radiochemotherapy” holds significant potential for improving the treatment of advanced solid malignancies.

  12. Reviews

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    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Morphology of Sponge Spicules: Silicatein a Structural Protein for Bio-Silica Formation (pages B422–B437)

      Xiaohong Wang, Matthias Wiens, Heinz C. Schröder, Shixue Hu, Enrico Mugnaioli, Ute Kolb, Wolfgang Tremel, Dario Pisignano and Werner E. G. Müller

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980042

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      Sponges are enigmatic and amazing. These evolutionary oldest multicellular animals comprise a skeleton fabricated from silica (see image). They are unique is the fact that those inorganic skeletal elements are synthesized by an enzyme (silicatein). This enzyme allows the formation of polysilicates at physiological temperature and with a purity of quartz glass. It is astonishing that even the oldest spicules, like those which are 420 million years old, act as light waveguides.

    2. Bioinspired Fabrication of Bio-Silica-Based Bone-Substitution Materials (pages B438–B450)

      Matthias Wiens, Xiaohong Wang, Filipe Natalio, Heinz C. Schröder, Ute Schloßmacher, Shunfeng Wang, Michael Korzhev, Werner Geurtsen and Werner E. G. Müller

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980043

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      Recently, the discovery, characterization, and engineering of several biomolecules involved in biosilicification of sponges have contributed to various approaches that aim to develop bioinspired or biomimetic materials. Currently, silicatein represents the only known natural biomineralizing enzyme. Hence, recombinant silicatein is used to synthesize amorphous and nanostructured bio-silica from monomeric precursors and used for coatings in tissue engineering or regenerative and restorative medicine. Bio-silica also stimulates the expression of genes involved in bone and cartilage formation and, concurrently, induces osteogenic differentiation and cell mineralization. In this study, silicatein is encapsulated together with its substrate sodium metasilicate into microspheres and implanted ex vivo in rabbit femurs.

    3. Biomimetic Collagen Nanofibrous Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering (pages B451–B466)

      Wenfu Zheng, Wei Zhang and Xingyu Jiang

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980087

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      This review briefly introduces natural mineralized collagen structures in bone, biomimetic mineralization and bone grafts. We discuss in vitro mineralization of collagen nanofibres fabricated by using molecular self-assembly, electrospinning and phase separation techniques and their applications in bone tissue engineering.

    4. Processing Technologies for 3D Nanostructured Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages B467–B487)

      Decheng Meng, Melek Erol and Aldo R. Boccaccini

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080019

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      Engineered scaffolds made from synthetic or natural biomaterials are crucial components in tissue engineering strategies. There is increasing evidence about the influence of nanoscale topography on cell attachment, migration and proliferation. This paper covers comprehensively the processing techniques that are available to introduce or engineer the nanoscale topography on the surfaces of 3D scaffolds or on 2D surfaces that can be successfully assembled into 3D scaffolds via post-processing. The advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are discussed. While the paper is focused on bone tissue scaffolds, most technologies reviewed are equally applicable to scaffolds suitable for engineering and regeneration of other tissues.

  13. Research Articles

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    13. Reviews
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    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Surface Functionalized Colloidal Microparticles for Fast Endocytotic Cell Uptake (pages B488–B495)

      Uta Reibetanz, Jaqueline Lessig, Jan Hoyer and Ines Neundorf

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980074

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      We present the design of multifunctional colloidal particles that consist of a biocompatible protamine sulfate/dextran sulfate multilayer coated with cell-penetrating peptides on top of the surface. Compared to unmodified particles these constructs are taken up in HEK293T/17 cells faster and more efficiently. This approach allows a rapid transport and release of biodegradable active agents targeting endolysosomes.

    2. In Vivo Evaluation of a pH-Sensitive Pullulan–Doxorubicin Conjugate (pages B496–B503)

      Dianxiang Lu, Jie Liang, Yujiang Fan, Zhongwei Gu and Xingdong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980085

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      pH-sensitive pullulan–doxorubicin conjugate is evaluated in vivo in comparison with doxorubicin. Hemolytic studies show that the conjugate had higher hemolytic compatibility. In vivo safety research shows that the conjugate shows greater biosafety than free doxorubicin, confirmed by acute toxicity, systemic toxicity, and histopathological observations. The cardiotoxicity of pullulan–doxorubicin conjugate is much lower than that of free doxorubicin, as confirmed by TEM (see image) and ECG. In vivo antitumor activity assay shows that pullulan–doxorubicin conjugate has a comparable antitumor efficacy to doxorubicin.

    3. Biodegradable Thermogelling Poly(D,L-lactide-co-p-dioxanone)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(D,L-lactide-co-p-dioxanone) Triblock Copolymer (pages B504–B510)

      Rui Chen, Jianyuan Hao, Chengdong Xiong and Xianmo Deng

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080016

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      Aqueous solution of thermogelling poly(D,L-lactide-co-p-dioxanone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly (D,L- lactide-co-p-dioxanone) triblock copolymer has shown clear double sol–gel and then gel–sol transitions with increasing temperature from 0 to 50°C. The introduction of PDO units into the hydrophobic block has greatly accelerated the water dissolution rate of the copolymer and facilitated the drug formulation. The developed thermosensitive hydrogel has suitable sol–gel transition temperature and is a promising injectable material for drug delivery depot and tissue engineering scaffold.

    4. Oxygen and Water Plasma-Immersion Ion Implantation of Copper into Titanium for Antibacterial Surfaces of Medical Implants (pages B511–B518)

      Martin Polak, Andreas Ohl, Marion Quaas, Gerold Lukowski, Frank Lüthen, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Karsten Schröder

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980048

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      Titanium and its alloys are used in different medical implants. In some cases, micro-organisms approach the materials surface and induce implant-associated infections. To prevent this, implants have to be equipped with antimicrobial properties. For this purpose, copper is of particular interest since it is highly effective against bacteria, while tolerated by some eukaryotic cells to a certain degree. Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) is advantageous, because it allows the modification of the subsurface region. In this way, a titanium surface was generated, which mainly consists of rutile (TiO2) with copper inside the lattice.

    5. Nanostructured Complexes of Polyelectrolytes and Charged Polypeptides (pages B519–B528)

      Martin Müller, Wuye Ouyang, Karolina Bohata and Bernd Keßler

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080005

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      Nanoparticles and films of complexes between polyelectrolytes (PELs) and oppositely charged polypeptides emphasizing the influence of PEL molecular stiffness on the generated nanostructures are reported. Homopolypeptides like cationic poly(L-lysine) (PLL) and anionic poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLG) were used, whose conformations can be changed from random coil to α-helix by salt type or pH value.

    6. Fibrous Composites With Anisotropic Distribution of Mechanical Properties After Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Aligned Electrospun Fibers (pages B529–B538)

      Jiangang Chen, Xiaohong Li, Wenguo Cui, Chengying Xie, Jie Zou and Bin Zou

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980079

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      In situ grown composite fibers of poly(DL-lactide) and hydroxyapatite were obtained with uniaxial distribution, which were deposited by layer-by-layer with different interlayer angles, and hot-pressed into fibrous composites with anisotropic distribution of mechanical properties. The hot-pressing parameters were optimized to maintain the fibrous structure, strengthen the interfiber bondings and eliminate the dimensional shrinkage of the hot-pressed fibrous composites. The ultimate tensile strength along the axial direction was 36.2±2.2 MPa, and the quantitative equations of the ultimate tensile strength along the axial and transverse directions were drafted as a function of the interlayer deposition angles.

    7. A Polyethylene Glycol-Crosslinked Serum Albumin/Hyaluronan Hydrogel for the Cultivation of Chondrogenic Cell Types (pages B539–B551)

      Karin Benz, Christian Freudigmann, Jana Müller, Helmut Wurst, Dirk Albrecht, Andreas Badke, Christoph Gaissmaier and Jürgen Mollenhauer

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080028

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      Growth and differentiation of chondrogenic cells in a SH-polyethylene glycol-crosslinked maleimido-albumin/hyaluronan hydrogel are analyzed. The approach leads to clinical application of the hydrogel as an in situ gelating scaffold for mesenchymal stromal precursor cells, joint chondrocytes, or intervertebral disk cells.

    8. HRTEM Study of the Mineral Phases in Human Cortical Bone (pages B552–B557)

      Renlong Xin, Yang Leng and Ning Wang

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.200980080

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      High-resolution transmission electron microscope with a low-dose mode was employed to examine the ultrastructure of human cortical bone minerals. Surprisingly, octacalcium phosphate was identified in thin flake-like bone minerals in addition to hydroxyapatite. Moreover, central dark line defect similar to that reported in dentin and enamel crystals was observed in needle-like bone minerals.

  14. Rapid Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Communications
    5. Book Review
    6. Cover Picture
    7. Back Cover
    8. Contents
    9. Editorial
    10. Guest Editorial
    11. Reviews
    12. Research Article
    13. Reviews
    14. Research Articles
    15. Rapid Communications
    1. Morphological Differentiation of Neurons on Microtopographic Substrates Fabricated by Rolled-Up Nanotechnology (pages B558–B564)

      Sabine Schulze, Gaoshan Huang, Matthias Krause, Deborah Aubyn, Vladimir A. Bolaños Quiñones, Christine K. Schmidt, Yongfeng Mei and Oliver G. Schmidt

      Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080023

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      Individual or arrays of transparent oxide microtubes can easily be mass-produced using rolled-up nanotechnology (see image). Primary mouse motor neurons and immortalised CAD cells, a cell line derived from the central nervous system, can be well cultured on such 3D microstructures to investigate the influence of topographical surface features on the growth and differentiation behaviour of these cells inside and outside of rolled-up microtubes. Our work opens up a cost-efficient and bio-compatible way of analysing single cell behaviour in the context of advanced micro-/nanostructures with various biological applications ranging from neurite protection studies to cell sensor development.

    2. Temperature-Responsive Controlled Drug Delivery System Based on Titanium Nanotubes (pages B565–B570)

      Kaiyong Cai, Feng Jiang, Zhong Luo and Xiuyong Chen

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080015

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      A smart temperature-sensitive drug release system was fabricated onto titanium nanotubes using MPS as coupling agent while N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylamide (AAm) were used to form hydrogel. When the temperature is lower than the LCST of PNIPAAm/PAAm composite hydrogel, the composite hydrogel is in a highly water swollen state, thus retarding the drug release from underlying titanium nanotubes; whereas the composite hydrogel is in a collapsing state to allow drug releasing from underlying titanium nanotubes once the temperature increases above the LCST of composite hydrogel.

    3. Biomimetic Mineralization: Effects on Human Enamel In Vivo (pages B571–B576)

      Arndt Guentsch, Susanne Busch, Karin Seidler, Ulrike Kraft, Sandor Nietzsche, Philip M. Preshaw, Julia N. Chromik, Eike Glockmann, Klaus D. Jandt and Bernd W. Sigusch

      Version of Record online: 7 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080008

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      Dental caries, and tooth surface loss by erosion, abrasion, and attrition lead to irreversible loss of dental tissue. Enamel is a highly mineralized acellular tissue and cannot be regenerated after tooth eruption. Currently available restorative materials, such as composites, replace lost tooth structure and improve function and aesthetics. However, these materials have no structural similarities to natural tooth structure. The efficacy of an experimental biomimetic mineralization-kit was tested in a clinical pilot study in patients with hypersensitive teeth. Enamel defects were effectively treated by addition of a fluoroapatite layer.

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