Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 12

December 2011

Volume 13, Issue 12

Pages 1079–1151, B431–B528

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Front Cover Advanced Materials 12/ 2011

      Jan-Marten Seitz, Dennis Utermöhlen, Eric Wulf, Christian Klose and Friedrich-Wilhelm Bach

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190032

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      The cover shows the strand manufactured by stranding 6 single wires (ZEK100) using a polymerical core. In general, magnesium strands constructed with cores consisting of other alloys or materials could also represent an interesting option. In this way, it would be possible to combine various material properties. In doing this, it would be conceivable to use polymer cores which provoke a “Drug Eluting Effect” following the start of magnesium corrosion and thereby differ from current polymer coatings which produce an appropriate release of medication in advance of the magnesium degradation. Further details can be found in the article by Seitz et. al. on page 1087.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Back Cover Advanced Materials 12/ 2011

      Belén Cabal, Francisco Malpartida, Ramón Torrecillas, Alexander Hoppe, Aldo R. Boccaccini and J. Serafín Moya

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190033

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      The cover shows biocide activity against M. luteus of glass-ceramic compact (middle) and coated with silver nanoparticles (right). Further details can be found in the article by Cabal et. al. on page B462.

  3. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Cover Advanced Biomaterials 7/2011

      Esther C. Novosel, Wolfdietrich Meyer, Nadine Klechowitz, Hartmut Krüger, Michael Wegener, Heike Walles, Günter E. M. Tovar, Thomas Hirth and Petra J. Kluger

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190034

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      Cell-material interaction on biomaterials depends on presented chemical surface groups. The cover shows the low density lipoprotein - uptake of endothelial cells on carboxy-functionalized polymer substrates for tissue engineering applications. More details can be found in the article of Novosel et. al. on page B467.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 12/2011) (pages 1079–1085)

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190031

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. The Manufacture of Resorbable Suture Material from Magnesium – Drawing and Stranding of Thin Wires (pages 1087–1095)

      Jan-Marten Seitz, Dennis Utermöhlen, Eric Wulf, Christian Klose and Friedrich-Wilhelm Bach

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100152

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      With the aid of multiple wire drawing passes, the magnesium alloys ZEK100, MgCa0.8, and AL36 were reduced to monofilament wires possessing diameters between 0.5 and 0.1 mm and subsequently twisted into poly-filament suture material using stranding. During the investigations, the alloy ZEK100 exhibited particularly interesting mechanical properties which, owing to its high tensile strengths and fracture strains, are comparable to those of conventional polymer based suture materials.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. 3D Crack-tip Microscopy: Illuminating Micro-Scale Effects on Crack-Tip Behavior (pages 1096–1100)

      Philip J. Withers

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100092

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      High resolution X-ray imaging and diffraction modes analogous to those in 2D electron microscopy are combined to form a 3D “crack-tip microscope”. Besides informing on the efficacy of micro- and nano-structural crack-shielding features shown in the figure, the microscope can be used to quantify three measures of the effective crack-tip stress intensity, namely from the overall near tip stress field, from the crack face tractions and from the crack opening displacements.

    2. In Situ Characterization of Internal Damage in TRIP-Steel/Mg-PSZ Composites under Compressive Stress Using X-Ray Computed Tomography (pages 1101–1107)

      Harry Berek, Uta Ballaschk and Christos G. Aneziris

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100117

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      An experimental setup for in situ investigations under compressive stress using laboratory X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was developed and successfully tested. The rising of observed deformation bands in foams can be explained by the dramatic change of the stress distribution in the neighbor cells after the first brake of a cell wall.

    3. Intrinsically Ductile Failure in a Nanocrystalline Beta Titanium Alloy (pages 1108–1113)

      Wei Xu, Roberto B. Figueiredo, Xiaolin Wu, Simon Pauly, Mihai Stoica, Jürgen Eckert, Terence G. Langdon and Kenong Xia

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100116

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      This communication contains five display items and reports that a nanocrystalline bcc Ti67.4Nb24.6Zr5Sn3 alloy fractures in an intrinsically ductile manner with exceptionally large dimples which are two orders of magnitude greater than the grain size. This large plasticity length scale is attributed to a combination of low shear modulus, high Poisson's ratio, and ultrahigh strength, close to the ideal shear stress, which facilitates ideal shear deformation to promote transgranular shear.

    4. A New Variant Selection Criterion for Twin Variants in Titanium Alloys (Part 1) (pages 1114–1121)

      Christophe Schuman, Lei Bao, Jean Sébastien Lecomte, Yudong Zhang, Jean Marc Raulot, Marie Jeanne Philippe and Claude Esling

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100119

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      A new selection criterion to explain the activation of the twinning variant in HCP is proposed. This criterion is based on the calculation of the strain energy to create a twin; the effect of grain size is also introduced by a Hall-Petch type relationship. The results are compared with experimental data.

    5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Reticulated Titanium Scrolls (pages 1122–1127)

      Eunji Hong, Bok Y. Ahn, Daisuke Shoji, Jennifer A. Lewis and David C. Dunand

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100082

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      Titanium scrolls are produced by direct writing a flexible mesh, composed of two orthogonal arrays of TiH2-based ink filaments (250µm in diameter), followed by rolling into scrolls. Heating to 1050°C results in decomposition of the hydride and partial sintering of Ti, yielding three-dimensional reticulated titanium scrolls. This approach provides a low-cost, versatile, and scalable route for fabricating metallic scrolls with tailored filament and pore geometries.

    6. Microstructure and Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (pages 1128–1134)

      Vineet Yadav and Sandip P. Harimkar

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100132

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      In this paper, spark plasma sintering (SPS) of multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum matrix composites is reported. Significant improvement in microhardness, nanohardness, and compressive yield strength was observed with 2wt% CNT reinforcement in aluminum matrix composites. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs.

    7. New Approach for the Application of Functional Ceramic Material in Carbon Bonded Doloma Refractories to Reduce Emissions (pages 1135–1141)

      Volker Stein, Christos G. Aneziris and Erwan Guéguen

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100108

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      Amongst the aspect of environmental friendly refractory systems this work has observed and shown the interaction of functional ceramic material TiO2 with the organic binder system. In the centre of this work is the aspect of increased residual carbon content of the binder resin due to TiO2 addition. The increased residual carbon content of the binder resin connected with improved brick properties due to sub-micro scaled TiO2 addition offers the feasibility to reduce the total carbon content without downgrading the brick properties.

    8. Strain Mismatch Induced Tilted Heteroepitaxial (000l) Hexagonal ZnO Films on (001) Cubic Substrates (pages 1142–1145)

      Bo Soo Kang, Liliana Stan, Igor O. Usov, Jung-Kun Lee, Tres A. Harriman, Don A. Lucca, Raymond F. DePaula, Paul N. Arendt, Michael Nastasi, Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll, Bae Ho Park and Quanxi Jia

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100106

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      A novel strain mismatch induced tilted epitaxy method has been demonstrated for producing high quality (000l) hexagonal films on (001) cubic substrates. Highly oriented hexagonal (000l) ZnO films are grown on (001) MgO using Sm0.28Zr0.72O2−δ as a template. The work opens up a new avenue for growing technologically important hexagonal structures on readily available cubic substrates and gives wide possibilities for heteroepitaxial growth of a range of dissimilar materials.

    9. The Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Mechanical Strength of Magnesium Based Implant Materials (pages 1146–1151)

      Jan-Marten Seitz, Kelly Collier, Eric Wulf, Dirk Bormann, Nina Angrisani, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg and Friedrich-Wilhelm Bach

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100074

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      The aim of this study is to identify the effects of different sterilization methods (autoclave sterilization, dry heat sterilization, gamma sterilization, and ethylene oxide sterilization) on the mechanical properties of LAE442 (Li 4 m.%, Al 4 m.%, RE 2 m.%), MgCa0.8 (Ca 0.8 m.%) magnesium alloys and pure magnesium. Such influences are likely due to the temperatures and media which are used whilst sterilizing. ETO sterilization caused the least changes in the mechanical properties of the alloys.

  7. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Focus on Materials in Biomaterials Science (page B431)

      Prof. Dr. Klaus D. Jandt

      Article first published online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180300

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Wear Performance of Dental Materials: A Comparison of Substructure Ceramics, Veneering Ceramics, and Non-Precious Alloys (pages B432–B439)

      Verena Preis, Sebastian Hahnel, Carola Kolbeck, Detlef Behrend, Mareike Warkentin, Gerhard Handel and Martin Rosentritt

      Article first published online: 26 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180015

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      The in vitro wear performance of dental ceramics, zirconia, or non-precious alloy materials is strongly influenced by the type of material. Glass-ceramic systems provide significantly higher wear in comparison to alloy or zirconia. In contradiction to common expectations, hard zirconia and alloy systems showed even lower antagonistic wear than glass-ceramics.

    2. Ti–6Al–4V–0.5B—A Modified Alloy for Implants Produced by Metal Injection Molding (pages B440–B453)

      Thomas Ebel, Carsten Blawert, Regine Willumeit, Bérengère J. C. Luthringer, Orley Milagres Ferri and Frank Feyerabend

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180017

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      Aiming at the economic manufacturing of geometrically and mechanically optimized permanent implants, the alloy Ti–6Al–4V was slightly modified by the addition of boron. The new alloy is optimised for the processing by metal injection molding (MIM). Presented mechanical, biological and corrosion tests show that all basic demands on a material for highly loaded permanent implants are fulfilled.

    3. Selectively Promoting or Preventing Osteoblast Growth on Titanium Functionalized with Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (pages B454–B461)

      Sergiy Zankovych, Jörg Bossert, Mathilde Faucon, Ulrich Finger and Klaus D. Jandt

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180020

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      In the present work we show that the proliferation of osteoblasts onto substrates functionalized with chitosan/gelatine multilayer coatings can be significantly increased compared to the uncoated titanium control. We demonstrate that the growth of osteoblasts can be completely suppressed on titanium surfaces functionalized with chitosan/hyaluronic acid multilayers.

    4. The Development of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Substrates with Biocide Activity (pages B462–B466)

      Belén Cabal, Francisco Malpartida, Ramón Torrecillas, Alexander Hoppe, Aldo R. Boccaccini and J. Serafín Moya

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180026

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      Bioactive glass-ceramics made from sintered 45S5 Bioglass® exhibit a biocidal capacity against E. coli and M. luteus, common Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Biocide tests are also carried out on samples coated with glass doped with silver. The antimicrobial activity of the bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds without silver is high and very promising. The bioactive glass ceramics have a lower biocidal effect on I. orientalis and the silver coating is not found to improve the biocidal effectiveness, although the kinetics of silver release is slow.

    5. Evaluation of Cell-Material Interactions on Newly Designed, Printable Polymers for Tissue Engineering Applications (pages B467–B475)

      Esther C. Novosel, Wolfdietrich Meyer, Nadine Klechowitz, Hartmut Krüger, Michael Wegener, Heike Walles, Günter E. M. Tovar, Thomas Hirth and Petra J. Kluger

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180018

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      The generation of advanced scaffolds for tissue engineering is increasingly implemented by rapid prototyping techniques and therefore designed materials. Two novel polymeric networks based on newly synthesized carboxyfunctionalized polyacrylates were designed to fit the requirements of 3D printing processes regarding viscosity and their surface tension.

  9. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Near-Surface Microstructural Reorganization of UHMWPE under Cyclic Load – A Pilot Study (pages B476–B482)

      Thomas F. Keller, Hannes Engelhardt, Peter Adam, Mathias C. Galetz, Uwe Glatzel and Klaus D. Jandt

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180058

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      The microstructure underneath a wear-induced failure in a non-cross-linked, medical grade UHMWPE subjected to cyclic load is characterized by a gradient in lamellar thickness and orientation. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows the failure to be amorphous and interconnected to the unmodified UHMWPE by a reorganization zone with an interfacial boundary layer which consists of stacked lamellae with an outstanding orientation.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Editorial
    9. Research Articles
    10. Rapid Communication
    11. Research Articles
    1. Cellular Mechanisms of Enhanced Osteoblasts Functions via Phase-Reversion Induced Nano/Submicron-Grained Structure in a Low-Ni Austenitic Stainless Steel (pages B483–B492)

      R. Devesh K. Misra, Bhupendra Girase, Pavan K. C. Venkata Surya, Mahesh C. Somani and L. Pentti Karjalainen

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180009

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      Cell proliferation, viability, and morphology is observed to be favorably modulated in phase-reversion annealed nanograined/sub-micron grained (N-SM) compared to conventional CG austenitic stainless steel which corroborates the enhanced cellular response in N-SM steel. The improvement in cellular response is ascribed to grain size and hydrophilicity of the substrate.

    2. Biocompatible Smart Microcapsules Based on Chitosan-Poly(vinyl alcohol) Copolymers for Cultivation of Animal Cells (pages B493–B503)

      Daria Zaytseva-Zotova, Vera Balysheva, Anna Tsoy, Maria Drozdova, Tatiana Akopova, Leonid Vladimirov, Isabelle Chevalot, Annie Marc, Jean-Louis Goergen and Elena Markvicheva

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180014

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      Novel chitosan-graft-poly(vinyl alcohol) copolymers are proposed as biocompatible polycations to prepare polyelectrolyte smart microcapsules for animal cell entrapment. The microcapsules being stable at long-term cell cultivation can be easily dissolved by slightly rising the pH value of the cultivation medium up to pH 8.0–8.2. This property is of great interest if the release of multicellular spheroids generated within the microcapsules is needed.

    3. Linear and Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Derivatives as Excellent Bioinert Glass Coating Materials (pages B501–B510)

      Marie Weinhart, Tobias Becherer, Nicolai Schnurbusch, Karin Schwibbert, Hans-Jörg Kunte and Rainer Haag

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180012

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      Bioinert surface coatings are demanded in the biomedical field in particular as a bioassay or array matrix. Glycerol based polymers of linear and branched architecture with a surface reactive silyl tether can be used to generate monolayers on glass. Such modified glass surfaces have excellent protein, eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cell resistant properties equivalent to PEG and at the same time offer the possibility for further modification via the multiple hydroxyl groups of polyglycerols.

    4. A Three-Layered Osteochondral Plug: Structural, Mechanical, and in vitro Biocompatibility Analysis (pages B511–B517)

      Halil Murat Aydin

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180005

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      An osteochondral plug with three distinct layers resembling the naturally occurring cartilage, tidemark, and subchondral zones is produced for application in the regeneration of defects of articular cartilage. The bone layer is constructed from a PLLA/PCL blend using a dual-porogen approach. The upper cartilage layer is made of PGA non-woven felt. Vertical channels facilitate the delivery of the stem cells and blood from the bone marrow when implanted. The biocompatibility is confirmed.

    5. Bioengineering of a Semiautologous Arterial Vessels with Reconstructed Media and Intima, Longtime Tested In Vivo (pages B518–B528)

      Tolga Atilla Sagban, Eleonore Schiegel, Klaus Grabitz, Wilhelm Sandmann and Kai Michael Balzer

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080143

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      Goal was to engineer biological, arterial grafts with antithrombotic, autologous endothelial luminal surface combined with extraluminal smooth vascular muscle layer and to test them in vivo. After implanting these semiautologious grafts, 9 of 10 showed patency after a follow up period of approximately 3 months, although no anticoagulation was used during this time. Aneurysmatic degeneration was not observed.

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