Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 3

Special Issue: 3D-Imaging of Materials and Systems

March, 2011

Volume 13, Issue 3

Pages B61–B130, 115–215

Issue edited by: Dominique Bernard

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 3/2011)

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190006

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      The cover shows the surface rendering of the 3D tomographic reconstruction of a spherical bead pack sample. The 7000 beads (2.3 mm diameter) are arranged in a cylindrical capsule of 49 mm diameter and 46 mm height. Further details can be found in the article by Ferrero et. al. on page 145.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 3/2011)

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190007

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      A new one batch approach to a fabrication of a biodegradable Ca-alginate film with embedded vitamin E loaded microspheres was demonstrated, which could be used for planar dermal drug delivery. The stable vitamin E microspheres, coated with gum acacia, were produced by ultrasonic treatment of a two-phase liquid system. The microspheres are well dispersed in alginate film without the presence of agglomerates. Surface modification of the microspheres by poly-L-lysine demonstrates the possibility of their future functionalization with various active substances for several biomedical applications. More details can be found in the article by Borodina et. al. on page B123.

  3. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. Polymers in Drug Delivery—State of the Art and Future Trends (pages B61–B87)

      Stefan Grund, Marius Bauer and Dagmar Fischer

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080088

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      Advances in biotechnology, proteomics and genomics, and the deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular bases of pathophysiological states, have allowed the development of novel drugs such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids as therapeutic strategies. Their application requires sophisticated delivery systems which can be used to alter the pharmacokinetics and release characteristics of drugs, and to increase tissue specificity and biocompatibility. This review summarizes the status quo of polymer use for drug delivery with a focus on structure–property relationships and gives overviews of various polymers, the relevant parameters in drug delivery and the most promising trends in the future.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. Highly Bioactive 8 nm Hydrothermal TiO2 Nanotubes Elicit Enhanced Bone Cell Response (pages B88–B94)

      Karla S. Brammer, Hyunsu Kim, Kunbae Noh, Mariana Loya, Christine J. Frandsen, Li-han Chen, Laura S. Connelly and Sungho Jin

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080103

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      Although there is a broad scope as regard to application, Ti orthopedic implants are just one class of medical devices that could benefit from a modified, nanostructured oxide surface. We have utilized a hydrothermal process to refine the TiO2 structure to an 8nm diameter nanotube geometry and evaluated its effect on bone cell growth. Although many properties and functions of the hydrothermally processed nanotubes have been evaluated, this is the first study to our knowledge on the biological responses to such ultrafine Ti oxide nanotube surfaces.

    2. Enhanced Bone Cells Growth and Proliferation on TiO2 Nanotubular Substrates Treated by RF Plasma Discharge (pages B95–B101)

      Meena Mahmood, Philip Fejleh, Alokita Karmakar, Ashley Fejleh, Yang Xu, Ganesh Kannarpady, Hidetaka Ishihara, Rajesh Sharma, Zhongrui Li, Anindya Ghosh, Steve Trigwell, Franklin D. Hardcastle, Daniel Casciano, Guna Selvaduray and Alexandru S. Biris

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080072

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      Vertical and ordered nanotubular TiO2arrays were fabricated by electrochemical anodization and were plasma treated under O2, N2, O2+N2, and He gaseous environments and their properties analyzed by various analytical procedures. Plasma treatments were found to significantly improve the proliferation of steoblast bone cells (MC3T3-E1) over the TiO2 nanoarray substrates, with the O2+N2 combination yielding the most significant improvements. These findings may be explained by the interactions between the cells and the changes in the surface chemistry induced by the O2 and N2 groups introduced by the plasma discharge treatment onto the TiO2 surfaces.

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 3/2011)

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190005

  6. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. Special Issue: 3D-Imaging of Materials and Systems 2008 (page 115)

      Dominique Bernard

      Version of Record online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100054

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomographic Microscopy for Biological and Materials Science Applications (pages 116–121)

      Samuel A. McDonald, Federica Marone, Christoph Hintermüller, Gordan Mikuljan, Christian David and Marco Stampanoni

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000219

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      Two approaches for high-throughput, high-resolution X-ray phase contrast tomographic imaging are discussed and illustrated. Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging uses a grating interferometer and a phase-stepping technique, while a modified transfer of intensity phase contrast approach can yield the 3D distribution of the decrement of the refractive index of a weakly absorbing object from a single tomographic dataset. The DPC method is characterised by a higher sensitivity; the figure compares an image obtained using the DPC method with a conventional absorption contrast image, equivalent slices extracted from the 3D tomographic volumes of an Al–Si alloy. Both reconstructions were obtained from the same grating interferometry scan.

    2. 3D-TEM Characterization of the Porosity in Nanoscaled Materials: Application to Catalysis (pages 122–127)

      Ileana Florea, Lucian Roiban, Charles Hirlimann, Fanny Tihay, Cuong Pham-Huu, Jacques Werckmann, Charlotte Pham, Patrick Nguyen, Marc Drillon and Ovidiu Ersen

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000220

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      The experiments presented here illustrate the remarkable ability of the electron tomography for the characterization of the porosity in porous nanomaterials. Based on the gain in information when going from a projection to a 3D reconstruction, it provides quantitative analysis of the morphology and structure of the samples without requiring the implementation of idealized models. These parameters are of prime importance because they govern the catalytic properties of the samples.

    3. Analysis of Snow Microstructure by Means of X-Ray Diffraction Contrast Tomography (pages 128–135)

      Sabine Rolland du Roscoat, Andrew King, Armelle Philip, Peter Reischig, Wolfgang Ludwig, Frédéric Flin and Jacques Meyssonnier

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000221

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      “Diffraction Contrast Tomography” (DCT) is a new, non-destructive, 3D characterization technique for polycrystalline materials. By combining X-ray absorption and diffraction imaging, it reveals simultaneously the specimen microstructure in terms of grain shape and geometry of the porosity, as well as the crystallographic orientation of individual grains. To understand how snow deforms at the grain scale, DCT scans are performed during compression tests on snow. This provides us with the crystalline orientation of the grains in the initial state and during the deformation, which is essential since ice exhibits a very strong anisotropy in the visco-plastic regime.

    4. Characterization of Graphite Crystal Structure and Growth Mechanisms Using FIB and 3D Image Analysis (pages 136–144)

      Alexandra Hatton, Michael Engstler, Peter Leibenguth and Frank Mücklich

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000234

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      Correlation between manufacturing parameters and graphite morphology was made using 3D analysis of graphite structure using FIB tomography and high resolution chemical analysis. Quantitative 3D characterization of possible growth mechanisms as well as precise analysis of the graphite's crystal structure have confirmed certain theoretical models for nodular and flake graphite and provided a comprehensive description of all intermediate morphologies.

    5. 3D Tomography Analysis of the Inner Structure of Pebbles and Pebble Beds (pages 145–155)

      Romeu A. Pieritz, Jörg Reimann and Claudio Ferrero

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000256

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      The knowledge of the geometrical structure of the pebble packs in the blanket of a tokamak fusion reactor is essential for the blanket final design. Features like the number of pebble–pebble and pebble–blanket wall contacts, as well as the respective contact surfaces need to be carefully investigated. For safety reasons, efficient tritium release is required throughout the gas percolation pathways inside the pebbles. High-resolution microtomography has proven to be an ideal tool for providing quantitative 3D information on this system.

    6. 3D Morphological Characterization of Phonic Insulation Fibrous Media (pages 156–164)

      Charles Peyrega, Dominique Jeulin, Christine Delisée and Jérôme Malvestio

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000257

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      The main purpose of the Silent Wall project is to design an acoustic and thermal insulating system, using fibrous media. The work presented in this paper describes the methods handled to characterize the 3D morphology of such materials by using image processing within mathematical morphology on 3D X-Ray CT images. One of the objectives of this analysis consists of linking both acoustic and morphological properties of phonic insulating fibrous materials.

    7. On the Use of Laguerre Tessellations for Representations of 3D Grain Structures (pages 165–170)

      Allan Lyckegaard, Erik Mejdal Lauridsen, Wolfgang Ludwig, Richard Warren Fonda and Henning Friis Poulsen

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000258

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      The representation of 3D grain structures by tessellation is studied. Representing the 3D grain structure from a meta-stable β- titanium alloy obtained by phase-contrast micro-tomography with both the classical Voronoi tessellation and the Laguerre tessellation (see figure) shows that the Laguerre is superior when the ability to reconstruct the grain shape as well as the topology is considered. In addition, statistical grain characteristics such as grain size distributions and grain neighbor distributions is improved when choosing the Laguerre tessellation over the Voronoi tessellation.

    8. Modeling of Ceramic Foams for Filtration Simulation (pages 171–177)

      Claudia Redenbach, Oliver Wirjadi, Stefan Rief and Andreas Wiegmann

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000222

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      We present a stochastic model for the microstructure of a ceramic foam filter which is produced by coating an open polymer foam with liquid ceramic. First, we fit a random Laguerre tessellation to the polymer foam skeleton. Then, the coating is modeled using locally adaptable morphology which allows for the reproduction of the ceramic foam's locally varying strut thickness. Furthermore, we introduce methods for the estimation of the intensity and orientation distribution of the closed facets which are formed during the coating process.

    9. Benefits of X-Ray CMT for the Modeling of C/C Composites (pages 178–185)

      Olivia Coindreau, Christianne Mulat, Christian Germain, Jean Lachaud and Gerard L. Vignoles

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000233

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      This article summarizes and discusses holotomographic and phase-contrast X-ray Tomographic imaging of C/C composites performed at two resolutions, and subsequent computations of geometrical and transport properties, as well as simulations, e.g., of the modeling of matrix processing by chemical vapor infiltration.

    10. 3D X-ray Microtomography Volume Correlation to Study Fatigue Crack Growth (pages 186–193)

      Nathalie Limodin, Julien Réthoré, Jean-Yves Buffière, François Hild, Wolfgang Ludwig, Johann Rannou and Stéphane Roux

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000235

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      Global DVC is used to analyze a series of computed tomography images of a nodular graphite cast iron specimen subjected in situ to a fatigue test. DVC provides 3D displacement fields in the bulk, crack geometry from residuals (Figure 1) and, finally SIFs all along the crack front.

    11. 3D Characterization of the Influence of Porosity on Fatigue Properties of a Cast Al Alloy (pages 194–198)

      Olivier Caty, Jean-Yves Buffiere, Eric Maire and Jerome Adrien

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000236

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      X-ray computed tomography (CT) of casting defects present in samples of a cast aluminum alloy have been analyzed to obtain morphologic parameters. 3D finite element meshes have also been generated from the CT images in order to compute the stress field at the vicinity of each defect. Correlations between the fatigue properties of the samples, the morphologic parameters, and the stress fields are analyzed to determine the predominant parameter.

    12. Microtomography and Creep Modeling of a Short Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston Alloy (pages 199–207)

      Esteban Marks, Guillermo Requena, Hans-Peter Degischer and Elodie Boller

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000237

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      Interconnectivity between eutectic silicon and short fibers in an AlSi12CuNiMg/Al2O3/15s composite increases with long-term creep exposure time due to diffusion. It is also observed that the stationary creep rate decreases significantly compared to the initial stationary creep rate. Interconnectivity between rigid phases is analyzed and three-dimensional statistical functions are applied to deduce the representative volume elements of the composite in different conditions. Unit cell geometrical models are generated to simulate the stationary creep behavior using the finite element method.

    13. The Impact of Pore Size and Pore Connectivity on Single-Phase Fluid Flow in Porous Media (pages 208–215)

      Zeyun Jiang, Kejian Wu, Gary D. Couples and Jingsheng Ma

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000255

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      The microstructure of porous materials allows us to understand, and predict, key transport properties such as fluid permeability. Using models derived from real sandstones, we examine the relative importance of pore size and pore connectivity in controlling flow. Pore connectivity, especially at scales near the resolution limits of typical investigation approaches, is very sensitive to variations that can be introduced during model segmentation, hence introducing a significant uncertainty in property prediction.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Invited Review
    5. Research Articles
    6. Contents
    7. Editorial
    8. Communications
    9. Research Articles
    1. Thermal Treatments of Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials to Tune the Physico-Chemical Properties and Modify the In Vitro Osteoclast Response (pages B102–B107)

      Rainer J. Egli, Sonja Gruenenfelder, Nicola Doebelin, Willy Hofstetter, Reto Luginbuehl and Marc Bohner

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080037

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      A new strategy to change the osteoclast response of calcium phosphate ceramic materials is presented. The change is induced by the application of a thermal treatment on the ceramic materials at a temperature low enough to prevent bulk sintering but high enough to allow atomic surface diffusion, thus removing physical surface defects and leading to a chemical surface passivation.

    2. Structure–Process–Property Relationship of Biomimetic Chitosan-Based Nanocomposite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Biological, Physico-Chemical, and Mechanical Functions (pages B108–B122)

      Nagini Maganti, Pavan K. C. Venkat Surya, Wah Wah Thein-Han, Thomas C. Pesacreta and R. Devesh K. Misra

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080094

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      Three-dimensional confocal micrograph of chitosan-nanohydroxyapatite scaffold illustrating interconnected pore structure and near uniform and non-agglomerated distribution of nanohydroxyapataite particles on the pore wall and within the nanocomposite scaffold.

    3. Vitamin E Microspheres Embedded Within a Biocompatible Film for Planar Delivery (pages B123–B130)

      Tatiana Borodina, Dmitry Grigoriev, Elena Markvicheva, Helmuth Möhwald and Dmitry Shchukin

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080047

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      Stable vitamin E microspheres are obtained due to cross-linking between gum acacia molecules during ultrasonic sphere fabrication. They are embedded into a Ca-alginate film as a topical implant for drug delivery. The release profile of vitamin from the film with entrapped microspheres is more sustained in comparison with the release of free vitamin distributed in the polymer film.

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