Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 5

May, 2011

Volume 13, Issue 5

Pages 373–447, B135–B193

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2011)

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190011

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      The cover shows a gradient scanning probe microscopy image of surface of a poly-(methyl methacrylate) film tested by nanoindentation to measure the polymer interfacial properties and substrate effects. The geometric confinement and chemical interactions between polymer chains and substrate are indicated schematically. A numerical model of the thin film indentation shows the contour map of the stress field due to indentation. Further details can be found in the article by Brinson et. al. on page 400.

  2. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2011)

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190012

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      The cover shows that structural fatigue testing of pseudoelastic NiTi stents reveals elementary deformation and damage mechanisms in small Nitinol medical devices. Further details can be found in the article by Frotscher et al. on page B181.

  3. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2011)

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190013

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      The cover shows different magnifications of fluorescence microscopy images of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheathing cells (NOBECs) seeded on genipin crosslinked gelatin sponges after nuclear DAPI staining. Further details can be found in the article by Tonda-Turo et al. on page B151.

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. (Adv. Eng. Mater. 5/2011)

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201190010

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. From Nanowheat to Nanograss: A Preparation Method to Achieve Free Standing Nanostructures Having a High Length/Diameter Aspect Ratio (pages 373–375)

      Mario Boehme and Wolfgang Ensinger

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000346

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      In this announcement, we engineer a novel process for the controlled fabrication of free standing, none collapsing nanostructures with length/diameter aspect ratios up to 375 based on several kinds of materials. Nanostructures with a very high aspect ratio synthesized using a template-based method tends to collapse into wheat like structures after their template will be removed in a common way using a template dissolving liquid. Based on a novel process to inhibit the mechanism of collapsing nanostructures synthesized by template-based deposition, nanograss-like, and free standing nanostructures are obtained easily.

    2. Mechanical Properties, Morphologies, and Microstructures of Novel Electrospun Metallized Nanofibers (pages 376–382)

      Hae-Rim Kim, Takeru Ito, Byoung-Suhk Kim, Yoshimi Watanabe and Ick-Soo Kim

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000320

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      The present paper gives an overview of the mechanical properties, morphologies, and microstructures of the metal-deposited electrospun nanofibers prepared by a combined technique of electrospinning and metallization. The tensile strength of the metal-deposited single nanofibers was investigated by recently developed tensile test machine. The influence of annealing conditions, such as annealing temperature and time, and composition ratio of two metals (Cu and Ni) on the morphologies and microstructures was evaluated for the metallized electrospun nanofibers.

    3. Effect of Recrystallization on Tensile Behavior, Texture, and Anisotropy of Ti-3Al-2.5 V Cold Pilgered Tubes (pages 383–387)

      Nicolás Bayona-Carrillo, Nathalie Bozzolo, Jean-Jacques Fundenberger, Bertrand Thomas, Patrick Camelin, Emmanuel Lenarduzzi and Francis Wagner

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000328

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      The recrystallized volume fraction of Ti 3Al 2.5V seamless tubes is measured using electron backscatter diffraction after annealing under various conditions. Standard tensile tests and contractile strain ratio (CSR) measurements are carried out in order to analyze the effect of recrystallization on the tensile behavior and the anisotropy of the tubes. The tensile tests show anomalous yield-point phenomena, which become stronger when the recrystallized fraction is increased. It is suggested that the variations of the CSR value through recrystallization are a result of the weakening of the crystallographic texture.

    4. A Role of α′ Martensite Introduced by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment in Improving Shape Memory Effect of an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-Ni Alloy (pages 388–394)

      Huabei Peng, Yuhua Wen, Gang Liu, Chaoping Wang and Ning Li

      Article first published online: 2 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000282

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      The α′ martensite introduced by the thermo-mechanical treatment could prevent collisions between different ε martensite bands during deformation, as shown in the in situ color optical micrographs of the specimen before and after 5% deformation at room temperature. The intrusion of α′ martensite was another key reason that the stress-induced ε martensite bands in Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys formed in a domain-specific manner in addition to that of uniformly distributed stacking faults after thermo-mechanical treatment.

    5. Enhanced Homogenization Strategy by Electroslag Remelting of High-Manganese TRIP and TWIP Steels (pages 395–399)

      Jan Reitz, Burkhard Wietbrock, Silvia Richter, Sascha Hoffmann, Gerhard Hirt and Bernd Friedrich

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000322

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      In an attempt to reduce micro-segregation in high-manganese TRIP and TWIP steels at reduced thermomechanical processing effort an alloy Fe21.5Mn0.35C is treated by electroslag remelting (ESR). After a simple hot rolling procedure with a thickness reduction of 90% and without further heat treatment, micro-segregation of manganese can be reduced to about 5wt%. There is a potential to achieve even lower values with further optimization of the ESR process and an adapted thermomechanical processing.

    6. Interfacial and Substrate Effects on Local Elastic Properties of Polymers Using Coupled Experiments and Modeling of Nanoindentation (pages 400–404)

      Supinda Watcharotone, Charles D. Wood, Robert Friedrich, Xinqi Chen, Rui Qiao, Karl Putz and L. Catherine Brinson

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000277

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      A direct approach to measure local, near interface, mechanical properties of confined polymers by coupled methods of nanoindentation experiments, and finite element simulations. The elastic modulus changes of thin poly(methyl methacrylate) films near an attractive interface were directly addressed. The effects of interphase, interface, and substrate on the elastic modulus are explored.

    7. One Step Lithography of Polypyrrole (pages 405–410)

      Diego F. Acevedo, Evelina Frontera, Martín F. Broglia, Frank Mücklich, María C. Miras and César A. Barbero

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000295

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      Direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) is use to create structures on polypyrrole (PPy) films. The structured areas, of regular lines and dots, as large as several square millimeters are produced with a single pulse at room temperature and pressure in air, making it easier to use than other lithographic techniques. The chemical composition of the PPy remains unaltered while the wettability of the surface change drastically. The application of the DLIP onto PPy seems to be a useful method to improve novel properties to the surfaces. Moreover, structured PPy can be used in biological applications such as guided cell growth and adhesion.

    8. Mechanism of Chromium Oxide Formation in Cobalt–Chromium–Molybdenum (F75) Alloys Prepared Using Spark Plasma Sintering (pages 411–417)

      Bhairav Patel, Fawad Inam, Michael J. Reece, Mohan Edirisinghe, William Bonfield, Jie Huang and Arash Angadji

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000367

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      To improve the performance of orthopedic implants, new strategies for processing Co–Cr–Mo alloys need to be invented. In this work, spark plasma sintering of fine Co, Cr, and Mo powders has been explored, and generates hard oxides rather than carbides in the microstructure. Chromium oxide formed by reaction between cobalt oxide and chromium is abundant in the microstructure and this can be more beneficial for the improvement of tribological properties.

    9. In Situ Synthesis of Ti5Si3 Matrix Nanocomposites Reinforced with Nanoparticles by High-Energy Mechanical Alloying (pages 418–425)

      Chuang Li, Dongdong Gu, Yifu Shen, Guangbin Meng and Yufang Li

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000377

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      In situ TiN/Ti5Si3 nanocomposite powder was prepared by high-energy mechanical alloying of a mixture of Ti and Si3N4 powder. The variations of constitution phases and microstructural features of the milled powders at different milling times were disclosed. The operative formation mechanisms behind the microstructural developments were elucidated.

    10. Influence of the Active Particles on the Self-Healing Efficiency in Glassy Matrix (pages 426–435)

      Daniel Coillot, François O. Méar, Renaud Podor and Lionel Montagne

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100002

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      In the present paper, we present the influence of the composition of the active particles on the self-healing property in glass – particles (B, B4C, VB, V or VC) composites. In situ healing of cracks in composites was observed using high-temperature environmental scanning electron microscopy. Self-healing occurs as a consequence of oxidation of active particles, which leads to the formation of an oxide, such as V2O5 and/or B2O3 that is fluid enough to fill in the crack at high temperature.

  6. Research News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. The Influence of a Small Boron Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding (pages 436–447)

      Orley Milagres Ferri, Thomas Ebel and Rüdiger Bormann

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201000280

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      The addition of boron to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy processed by MIM promotes a significant refinement of the microstructure by changing the microstructure from the typical lamellar to a more equiaxed morphology. The presence of both features: α colonies and α grains are confirmed by EBSD experiments. As a result of the refinement of the microstructure excellent mechanical properties are obtained.

  7. Invited Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. Biomimetic Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering – State of the Art and Future Trends (pages B135–B150)

      Thomas Cordonnier, Jérôme Sohier, Philippe Rosset and Pierre Layrolle

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080098

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      Bone tissue engineering consists of culturing mesenchymal stem cells in combination with scaffolds for regenerating bone defects in patients. This paper reviews biomimetic approaches involving hydrogels, polymer nanofibers or calcium phosphate microparticles for 3-dimensional culture of several cell populations. Hybrid constructs having high numbers of cells and low volume content of biomaterial may facilitate bone tissue regeneration and re-vascularization.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Inside Front Cover
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Research News
    8. Invited Review
    9. Research Articles
    1. Porous Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nerve Guide Filled with Porous Gelatin Matrix for Nerve Tissue Engineering (pages B151–B164)

      Chiara Tonda-Turo, Chiara Audisio, Sara Gnavi, Valeria Chiono, Piergiorgio Gentile, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna, Isabelle Perroteau and Gianluca Ciardelli

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080099

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      Porous artificial-nerve guides filled with a porous luminal matrix are promising strategies to repair nerve injuries, due to their enhanced permeability to nutrients and their support to the attachment and proliferation of glial cells. In this work, poly(ε-caprolactone) guides with optimized porosity are produced and filled with a porous gelatin sponge supporting the proliferation of NOBEC.

    2. Design of Plasma Surface-Activated, Electrospun Polylactide Non-Wovens with Improved Cell Acceptance (pages B165–B171)

      Ralf Wyrwa, Birgit Finke, Henrike Rebl, Nicole Mischner, Marion Quaas, Jan Schaefer, Claudia Bergemann, J. Barbara Nebe, Karsten Schroeder, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Matthias Schnabelrauch

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080116

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      Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) non-wovens are modified with an ultrathin plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAAm) coating containing positively charged amino groups. The fiber structure of the non-woven is not affected by the plasma treatment and due to the PPAAm-coating the hydrophobic nature of the polymeric non-woven is changed into a hydrophilic one. Cell experiments in vitro demonstrate that the PPAAm-coated surface promotes occupancy of the non-woven by human osteoblasts accompanied by enhanced initial cell spreading and filopodia formation along and between the fibers. Overall, plasma-assisted incorporation of amino groups into non-wovens represents a promising approach to tissue engineering scaffolds with improved cell-material interfaces.

    3. In Situ Forming Hydrogels: A Thermo-Responsive Polyelectrolyte as Promising Liquid Artificial Vitreous Body Replacement (pages B172–B180)

      Falko Strotmann, Ella Bezdushna, Helmut Ritter and Hans-Joachim Galla

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080104

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      Our synthesized cross-linked polyelectrolyte comprising sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate and acrylic functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) macromonomer displays a noticeable thermosensitive behavior. It exhibits enhancement of shear viscosity at physiological temperatures without phase separation. We present the polyelectrolyte synthesis with promising physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility tests on a transformed retinal ganglion cell line. Our results suggest the potential use as artificial vitreous body replacement to avoid the typical fragmentation of preformed hydrogels during application.

    4. Elementary Deformation and Damage Mechanisms During Fatigue of Pseudoelastic NiTi Microstents (pages B181–B186)

      Matthias Frotscher, Sangni Wu, Tobias Simon, Christoph Somsen, Antonin Dlouhy and Gunther Eggeler

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180001

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      The fatigue behavior of NiTi stents is investigated up to 30 million load cycles. The response of the stents to mechanical loading indicates cyclic softening during cycling. FIB and TEM are used to clarify the microstructural reasons. The results show that the dislocation density increases and that microstructural regions with stabilized stress-induced martensite can be detected.

    5. Comparative Evaluation on the In Vitro Biological Performance of Ti45Al8.5Nb Intermetallic with Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb Alloys (pages B187–B193)

      Huafang Li, Yufeng Zheng and Junpin Lin

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080110

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      The corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of Ti45Al8.5Nb intermetallic alloy was studied, with contemporary biomedical Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys as comparison. The results demonstrate that the corrosion current density of the three experimental alloy samples are similar. The Al3+ ion releasing concentration for Ti45Al8.5Nb intermetallic and Ti6Al7Nb alloy after anodic polarization are close. Ti45Al8.5Nb intermetallic alloy has a good cytocompatibility with the Grade 1 RGR value (no toxicity) according to ISO 10993-5: 1999.

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