Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 14 Issue 4

April 2012

Volume 14, Issue 4

Pages 211–278, B93–B194

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Front Cover Advanced Materials 4/2012

      Enrico Bernardo, Paolo Colombo, Emil Dainese, Giovanni Lucchetta and Paolo F. Bariani

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290014

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover shows examples of 3D wollastonite-based scaffolds from preceramic polymers with reactive fillers. Upper side: sample from fused deposition, after ceramization; Lower side: samples from conventional hot extrusion, after and before ceramization, on the left and on the right, respectively. Further details can be found in the article by E. Bernardo et. al. on page 269.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Front Cover Advanced Materials 4/2012

      Deju Zhu, Cesar Fuentes Ortega, Ramak Motamedi, Lawrence Szewciw, Franck Vernerey and Francois Barthelat

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290015

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scales provide fishes with a thin, flexible and light-weight protection against predators. Puncture tests on individual scales have revealed an unusually high resistance to sharp penetration, and unique failure mechanisms which could inspire new designs for protective materials. More details can be found in the article by F. Barthelat et. al. on page B185.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 4/2012

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290016

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 4/2012 (pages 211–217)

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290013

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Morphology, Oxidation, and Mechanical Behavior of Nanoporous Cu Foams (pages 219–226)

      I. Chung Cheng and Andrea M. Hodge

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100252

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      Nanoporous copper foams are synthesized by dealloying different copper alloys. Ligament sizes, porosity, and oxide content are examined to determine the nanoporous foam's structure and thermal stability. The pores and ligaments of the foams can be controlled by the dealloying process or a subsequent heat treatment. These foams are shown to retain their structural integrity even after oxidation.

    2. Influence of Die Lubricants on Pickling and Conversion Treatment of High-Pressure Die-Cast AM30 Magnesium Alloy (pages 227–235)

      Carsten Blawert, Thiago Ferreira da Conceicao, Karl Ulrich Kainer, Patrick Izquierdo, Stephan G. Klose and Daniel Höche

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100259

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      Two different lubricants have been applied for die-casting of AM30. The arising surface properties like impurity contamination (Figure) or inhomogeneity are investigated with respect to pickling, conversion treatments, and top coats. Extensive surface analysis tries to reveal the scientific reasons for the varying properties. As a result, general aspects and hints of lubricant selection are formulated.

    3. Effect of Microstructure and Hydrogen Pores on the Mechanical Behavior of an Al7%Si0.3%Mg Alloy Studied by a Combined Phase-Field and Micromechanical Approach (pages 236–247)

      Galina Lasko, Markus Apel, Antoine Carré, Ulrich Weber and Siegfried Schmauder

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100188

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      A combination of the phase-field method for the simulation of the microstructure evolution during solidification with subsequent finite element simulation of fracture appearance in the final solidification structure is proposed for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of Al-Si based casting alloys. Computer tomographic observations an Al7%Si0.3%Mg alloy together with the data obtained from mechanical tensile testing are used to compare and validate the simulation results.

    4. Controlled Crack Propagation Experiments with a Novel Alumina-Based Refractory (pages 248–254)

      E. Skiera, J. Malzbender, J. Mönch, S. Dudczig, C. G. Aneziris and R. W. Steinbrech

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100221

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      Novel material solutions for application in high temperature processes are currently under development within the framework of the DFG priority program “FIRE.” Controlled crack propagation experiments with in situ crack growth observation are performed on alumina-based refractories. Crack growth mechanisms such as crack branching can be observed. The measured room temperature values allow the determination of a relevant thermal shock parameter.

    5. Novel Al2O3-C Refractories with Less Residual Carbon Due to Nanoscaled Additives for Continuous Steel Casting Applications (pages 255–264)

      Vasileios Roungos, Christos G. Aneziris and Harry Berek

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new generation of thermal shock resistant Al2O3-C refractories with additives of carbon nanotubes and alumina nanosheets were developed. With the aid of EBSD analyses on fracture surfaces of the carbon bonded samples, Al3CON was identified on the nanosheet shapes already at 1 000 °C coking temperature. This new phase provides a chemical interconnection between carbon and the alumina filler. The new refractory presents excellent thermo-mechanical properties.

    6. Atomistic Simulation of the Explosion Welding Process (pages 265–268)

      Ossi Saresoja, Antti Kuronen and Kai Nordlund

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100211

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      Explosion welding of iron and copper is studied on the atomic level using molecular dynamics simulations. The jet formation considered necessary for good bonding correlates with the instantaneous melting of the interface region. Moreover, peeling off of material is observed from the bonded surfaces. The structure of the material after the bonding process is observed to be nanocrystalline.

    7. Novel 3D Wollastonite-Based Scaffolds from Preceramic Polymers Containing Micro- and Nano-Sized Reactive Particles (pages 269–274)

      Enrico Bernardo, Paolo Colombo, Emil Dainese, Giovanni Lucchetta and Paolo F. Bariani

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper illustrates an innovative process for wollastonite ceramics, based on silicones reacting with micro- and nano-sized CaCO3 powders, at low temperature, in air. Hydroxyapatite powders can also be added, to modify the biological response of the material. The approach leads to 3D scaffolds, useful for bone tissue engineering, via fused deposition (see side figure) or via conventional hot extrusion.

    8. Evolution of Microstructure of Cold-Spray Aluminum Coatings on Al2O3 Substrates (pages 275–278)

      Dagmar Dietrich, Bernhard Wielage, Thomas Lampke, Thomas Grund and Sabine Kümmel

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100261

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electron backscatter diffraction is used to study the microstructural evolution of cold-spray coatings on Al2O3 substrates. Compared to the feedstock powder (A), the examined aluminum coatings contain a fraction of finer grains in the as-sprayed state (B), which is consumed by post-annealing (C). The study gives evidence to continuous dynamic recrystallization due to the high strain rate during cold spraying.

  6. Rapid Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Hybrid Nanoscale Architecture for Enhancement of Antimicrobial Activity: Immobilization of Silver Nanoparticles on Thiol-Functionalized Polymer Crystallized on Carbon Nanotubes (pages B93–B100)

      R. Devesh K. Misra, Bhupendra Girase, Dilip Depan and Jinesh S. Shah

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180081

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture first involved direct crystallization of thiol-functionalized copolymer along the long axis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by attachment of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the thiol-group of functionalized copolymer. This approach enhances antimicrobial activity by several orders of magnitude over bare AgNPs of similar size range.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Rapid Communication
    8. Research Articles
    1. Cellular Mechanics of Modulated Osteoblasts Functions in Graphene Oxide Reinforced Elastomers (pages B101–B111)

      Bhupendra Girase, Jinesh S. Shah and R. Devesh K. Misra

      Version of Record online: 27 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180028

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enhanced osteoblasts functions on the surface of silicone–graphene oxide hybrid elastomer, as implied by the analysis of two prominent proteins, actin and vinclulin. The higher number of focal adhesion contact corresponds well with the high number of actin stress fibers.

    2. Controlled Delivery of Gentamicin Antibiotic from Bioactive Electrospun Polylactide-Based Ultrathin Fibers (pages B112–B122)

      Sergio Torres-Giner, Antonio Martinez-Abad, Jose V. Gimeno-Alcañiz, Maria J. Ocio and Jose M. Lagaron

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The purpose of this study was to generate ultrathin fibers based on polylactide (PLA) biopolyester with antimicrobial controlled release capacity to treat bacterial infections. To achieve this objective, gentamicin antibiotic was encapsulated into pure PLA fibers, a blend of PLA–collagen and coaxial fibers containing a skin of PLA and a core of collagen using the electrospinning technique.

    3. Mineralization of Collagen-Coated Electrospun Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Nanofibrous Mesh to Enhance Growth and Differentiation of Osteoblasts and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (pages B123–B137)

      Lihong Lao, Yang Zhu, Yuying Zhang, Zhenyu Gao, Feng Zhou, Longkun Chen, Hongwei Ouyang and Changyou Gao

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180023

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The apatite particles were nucleated on the fiber surface, gradually grew up, and finally covered the whole PLGA nanofibrous mesh. While the non- or less mineralized NFMs were more beneficial to cell spreading and proliferation, the highly mineralized ones could strongly promote secretion of alkaline phosphatase. The highly mineralized NFMs also could significantly up-regulate ALP activity and calcium synthesis of BMSCs.

    4. Development and Characterization of Electropsun Poly(propylene carbonate) Ultrathin Fibers as Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages B138–B148)

      Naveen Nagiah, Uma Tiruchirapalli Sivagnanam, Ranganathan Mohan, Natarajan Tirupattur Srinivasan and Praveen Kumar Sehgal

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Beads and spray are observed when different concentrations of poly(propylene carbonate) were electrospun at 0.33 kV · cm−1 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL · h−1. Addition of 0.5 wt% CTAB as additive produced beadless and even fibers of poly(propylene carbonate). Appropriate adhesion and proliferation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts is observed after cell seeding on 10% poly(propylene carbonate) electrospun at 0.5 kV · cm−1 with flow rate of 0.3 mL · h−1.

    5. Type I Collagen Immobilized Poly(caprolactone) Nanofibers: Characterization of Surface Modification and Growth of Fibroblasts (pages B149–B154)

      Natarajan Krithica, Venkatachalam Natarajan, Balaraman Madhan, Praveen Kumar Sehgal and Asit Baran Mandal

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180035

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      Poly(caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibers were modified by aminolysis and collagen was immobilized on the aminolysed PCL nanofibers. Aminolysis of PCL nanofibers was confirmed by electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Collagen was immobilized on aminolysed PCL nanofibers using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker. The collagen crosslinking on to PCL nanofibers was established by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were seeded into the nanofibrous scaffold and observed for biocompatibility. Collagen immobilization improved the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts onto the PCL nanofibrous scaffold.

    6. Sintered Hydroxyapatite/Polyetheretherketone Nanocomposites: Mechanical Behavior and Biocompatibility (pages B155–B165)

      Kai Li, Che Yan Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok Yeung and Sie Chin Tjong

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201080145

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      A 29.2vol% nHA/PEEK nanocomposite prepared by powder-processing and sintering techniques exhibits good mechanical behavior, closely matching that of human cortical bone, and excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. An apatite Ca-P layer can be readily deposited on the surface of the nanocomposite upon immersion in a simulated-body fluid solution (A). Immunofluorescence microscopy examination reveals that vinculin (green dots) is formed at the terminals of mouse osteoblasts adhered on the 29.2vol% nHA/PEEK nanocomposite after 48h culturing. The actin filament (red line) is found to develop into a well-organized cytoskeleton (B). The sintered 29.2vol% nHA/PEEK nanocomposite is potentially useful in bone replacement due to its good bioactivity and biocompatibility.

    7. Biomimetic Titanium Alloy with Sparsely Distributed Nanotubes Could Enhance Osteoblast Functions (pages B166–B174)

      Shenglin Mei, Lingzhou Zhao, Wei Wang, Qianli Ma and Yumei Zhang

      Version of Record online: 28 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180056

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A biomimetic surface with sparsely distributed nanotubes, which is more similar to the cross-section of collagen fibrils than commonly reported titania nanotubes, is fabricated by anodization of titanium alloy. This unique and biomimetic structure could enhance rat osteoblast functions in vitro, including ALP activity, collagen secretion, ECM deposition, and osteogenesis-related gene expression.

    8. Nanofunctionalized Superhydrophobic Antifouling Coatings for Environmental Sensor Applications—Advancing Deployment with Answers from Nature (pages B175–B184)

      James Chapman and Fiona Regan

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180037

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      The novel preparation of superhydrophobic materials for the coating of marine based sensors has been demonstrated. The coatings were designed to prevent the detrimental effects of biofouling and have shown throughout all the assays performed, that they are certainly a viable antifouling coating for this type of application and more.

    9. Structure and Mechanical Performance of a “Modern” Fish Scale (pages B185–B194)

      Deju Zhu, Cesar Fuentes Ortega, Ramak Motamedi, Lawrence Szewciw, Franck Vernerey and Francois Barthelat

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201180057

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fish scales provide a high-performance light-weight, flexible protective system. We have shown that an individual scale performs better than polycarbonate against puncture by a sharp object. The scale displays well defined puncture mechanisms where the external bony layer cracks first in a well defined “cross” pattern, while the underlying collagen acts as a retaining membrane to resist puncture.

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