Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 14 Issue 8

August 2012

Volume 14, Issue 8

Pages 515–749

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
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    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
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    1. Front Cover Advanced Engineering Materials 8/2012

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290029

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      The cover shows the martensitic and magnetic microstructure of different epitaxial magnetic shape memory films, courtesy of Anett Diestel, Anja Backen, Christian Behler, Sandra Kauffmann-Weiss, and Robert Niemann.

  2. Masthead

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    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 8/2012

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290030

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Reviews
    7. Communications
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    1. Adv. Eng. Mater. 8/2012 (pages 515–520)

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201290028

  4. Editorial

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    4. Contents
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    1. Why Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys? (pages 521–522)

      S. Fähler

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200167

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      Actuation by magnetically induced reorientation (MIR) in a Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal. The contrast in polarization microscopy originates from variants with different orientations. The video shown online is by courtesy of Ryan Lai and Jeffrey McCord.

  5. Reviews

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    1. Magnetic Interactions in Ni-Mn-Based Magnetic Shape-Memory Heusler Alloys (pages 523–529)

      Mehmet Acet and Eberhard F. Wassermann

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200098

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      Neutron polarization analysis on Ni50Mn40Sb10 having a martensitic transition temperature Ms = 440 K. The magnetic cross section as a function of the wave vector shows at 500 K (T > Ms) the presence of short-range ferromagnetic correlations seen as the increase in the cross section as q[RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 0. At lower temperatures (T < Ms) ferromagnetic interactions disappear and only short-range antiferromagnetic correlations are found as observed in the peaking at finite q.

    2. A First-Principles Investigation of the Compositional Dependent Properties of Magnetic Shape Memory Heusler Alloys (pages 530–546)

      Mario Siewert, Markus E. Gruner, Alfred Hucht, Heike C. Herper, Antje Dannenberg, Aparna Chakrabarti, Navdeep Singh, Raymundo Arróyave and Peter Entel

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200063

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      Ab initio calculations are able to model the phase diagrams of magnetic shape memory Heusler alloys. In particular, the calculation of structural energy differences allows to approximate martensitic transition temperatures for a wide range of compositions using supercells. The derived formalism can be used to predict new magnetic shape memory materials like NiPtMn(Ga,Sn).

    3. Ab Initio-Based Prediction of Phase Diagrams: Application to Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (pages 547–561)

      Tilmann Hickel, Matthé Uijttewaal, Ali Al-Zubi, Biswanath Dutta, Blazej Grabowski and Jörg Neugebauer

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200092

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      Focussing on the magnetic shape memory Heusler alloy Ni–Mn–Ga, the present work reviews recent methodological developments and advancements for a simulation of phase diagrams using density functional theory. The delicate interplay of vibrational and magnetic excitations is investigated in order to predict and understand the sequence of martensitic phase transition temperatures and their composition dependence in this material system.

    4. The Role of Adaptive Martensite in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (pages 562–581)

      Robert Niemann, Ulrich K. Rößler, Markus E. Gruner, Oleg Heczko, Ludwig Schultz and Sebastian Fähler

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200058

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      Magnetic shape memory materials require a high twin boundary mobility and low hysteresis for applications. Outstanding properties are found in samples with a modulated martensitic structure. Following the concept of adaptive martensite, this modulation forms to minimize elastic energy near the phase boundary by introducing low-energy twin boundaries between lamellae of the non-modulated martensite with widths of a few unit cells. We combine theory and experiment to understand modulated martensite.

  6. Communications

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    1. Modeling and Simulation of Large Microstructured Particles in Magnetic-Shape-Memory Composites (pages 582–588)

      Sergio Conti, Martin Lenz and Martin Rumpf

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200048

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      We study composite materials in which single-crystalline magnetic shape-memory particles are embedded in a polymer matrix, in the limit of particles much larger than the typical domain size. We first derive an effective macroscopic model, using the mathematical theory of relaxation, and then solve it numerically for practically relevant parameters, and compare with experimental results.

    2. Domain Models of Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Materials (pages 589–593)

      Ulrich K. Rößler

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200120

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      Magnetic shape-memory materials combine ferroelasticity with ferromagnetism and display coupled crystallographic and magnetic microstructures. The concept of domains as piecewise homogeneous variants of the ordered states has to be extended in order to describe nanoscale twinning. At the example of the martensitic ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2MnGa a continuum model for adaptive martensites is developed based on ab initio calculations.

    3. A Constrained Model for MSMA (pages 594–600)

      Antonio Capella, Stefan Müller and Felix Otto

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200095

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      This paper investigates large body limits of a variational model for magnetic shape memory alloys with a tetragonal martensitic phase. The starting point is linearized elasticity, micromagnetics and, as a crucial element, interfacial energies. In the limit of large anisotropy, large body and low energy configurations, a new constrained model is derived. As opposed to existing constrained theories, the new model predicts martensitic twin with charged magnetic domain walls, as observed in recent experiments.

  7. Reviews

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    1. Magnetic Domains and Twin Boundary Movement of NiMnGa Magnetic Shape Memory Crystals (pages 601–613)

      Andreas Neudert, Yin Wai Lai, Rudolf Schäfer, Mikhail Kustov, Ludwig Schultz and Jeffrey McCord

      Article first published online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200074

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      Polarization microscopy image obtained by a magneto-optical indicator film technique, revealing the magnetic domain pattern of a magnetic shape memory crystal. A schematic interpretation of the magnetic domain distribution inside the sample is given. The arrows indicate the magnetization direction in each domain, which coincide with the crystallographic c-axis orientations. Within the individual variants 180° domain walls and across the movable twin boundaries nearly 90° domain walls are formed.

    2. Key Properties of Ni[BOND]Mn[BOND]Ga Based Single Crystals Grown with the SLARE Technique (pages 614–635)

      Katharina Rolfs, Markus Chmielus, Jan M. Guldbakke, Robert C. Wimpory, Annika Raatz, Winfried Petry, Peter Müllner and Rainer Schneider

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200065

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      The production of NiMnGa based single crystals is difficult and time consuming. With the SLARE technique, big single crystals of NiMnGa with different alloy concentration and of high quality can be grown. The alloying with a fourth element as well as surface treatment and mechanical training improve the thermal properties and the stress-and strain behavior for applications in various fields.

    3. Processing Routes Toward Textured Polycrystals in Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys (pages 636–652)

      Uwe Gaitzsch, Robert Chulist, Linda Weisheit, Andrea Böhm, Werner Skrotzki, Carl-Georg Oertel, Heinz-Günter Brokmeier, Thomas Lippmann, Iñaki Navarro, Martin Pötschke, Jan Romberg, Claudia Hürrich, Stefan Roth and Ludwig Schultz

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200084

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      Various technological means were tested in order to elaborate the conditions for obtaining magnetic field-induced strain (MFIS) by twin boundary motion in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga. The influence of those technological means on microstructure and their relation to magneto mechanical behavior are presented. The possibility to obtain stable MFIS of more than 1% over more than 1 million cycles was demonstrated.

    4. NiMn-Based Alloys and Composites for Magnetically Controlled Dampers and Actuators (pages 653–667)

      Jian Liu, Nils Scheerbaum, Sandra Kauffmann-Weiss and Oliver Gutfleisch

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200038

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      In this review, the preparation and characterization of textured NiMnGa magnetic shape memory (MSM) composite are focused. Essential issues, e.g. the criterion of polymer selection and the interface of MSM particles and polymer are discussed. Second aspect of the paper is to review recent developments in meta-MSM Ni–Mn-(In,Sn,Sb) systems which exhibit field-driven multifunctional properties.

    5. MSM Actuators: Design Rules and Control Strategies (pages 668–681)

      Benedikt Holz, Leonardo Riccardi, Hartmut Janocha and David Naso

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200045

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      This paper reviews and compares the main operating modes of magnetic shape memory actuators. Different concepts to achieve elongation and contraction magnetically are illustrated. Moreover, the main driving electronics concepts, and the main control approaches for position control are presented. This paper gives a comprehensive overview on the design and control strategies for MSM actuators.

  8. Communications

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    1. Principle Design of Actuators Driven by Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys (pages 682–686)

      Kathrin Schlüter, Benedikt Holz and Annika Raatz

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200078

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      This study investigates the use of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) as active material in actuators. Thereby, three different concepts of MSM actuators have been designed and realized. Advantages and disadvantages of each concept are discussed and an overview of the MSM actuator potential is shown.

    2. Structure and Microscopic Magnetism of Epitaxial Ni–Mn–Ga Films (pages 687–695)

      Tobias Eichhorn, Richard Hausmanns, Peter Klaer, Michael Kallmayer, Hans-Joachim Elmers and Gerhard Jakob

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200042

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      The Ni–Mn–Ga compound is of both technological and scientific interest, due to the presence of a ferromagnetic shape memory effect. In particular thin films are promising candidates for integration in microsystems. We study the complex crystal structure and variant configuration in freestanding single-crystalline films. In addition, spectroscopy methods are applied to investigate the microscopic magnetism in the system.

  9. Review

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    1. Epitaxial Ni[BOND]Mn[BOND]Ga Films for Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Microactuators (pages 696–709)

      Anja Backen, Srinivasa Reddy Yeduru, Anett Diestel, Ludwig Schultz, Manfred Kohl and Sebastian Fähler

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200069

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      The search for new active material suitable for integration in microsystems focuses on the magnetic shape memory alloy NiMnGa due to its high achievable strains. The present review comprises the route from preparation of epitaxial films to their release. Freestanding NiMnGa films are further analyzed to answer the following questions: Does the preparation route affect the film properties? Can twin boundary motion be induced by an external magnetic field?

  10. Communications

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    1. Structure and Composition of Magnetocaloric Ni–Mn–In–Co Thin Films on the Nanoscale—A TEM Study (pages 710–715)

      Burak Erkartal, Viola Duppel, Robert Niemann, Ludwig Schultz, Sebastian Fähler, Ulrich Schürmann and Lorenz Kienle

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200072

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      A combined TEM approach allows chemical and structural characterization of materials on the same nanoscale area. In the case of precipitates the spatial distribution of selected elements via EDX elemental maps can be determined.

    2. Structural Characterization of Sputtered Fe70Pd30 Thin Films During Ex Situ and In Situ TEM Heating (pages 716–723)

      Christoph Bechtold, Andriy Lotnyk, Burak Erkartal, Lorenz Kienle and Eckhard Quandt

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200041

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      Freestanding films of the magnetic shape memory (MSM) alloy Fe70Pd30 that are promising for applications in MEMS are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering, photo lithography, and lift-off techniques. Changes in structural and magnetic properties that take place during the mandatory heat treatment are investigated in detail in this study by both in situ TEM and ex situ methods.

  11. Review

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    1. Understanding the Magnetic Shape Memory System Fe–Pd–X by Thin Film Experiments and First Principle Calculations (pages 724–749)

      Sandra Kauffmann-Weiss, Sven Hamann, Markus Ernst Gruner, Jörg Buschbeck, Alfred Ludwig, Ludwig Schultz and Sebastian Fähler

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200052

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      The magnetic shape memory alloy Fe70Pd30 is of particular interest for novel microactuator and sensor applications. Here we review the underlying physical and material science concepts by combining first principle calculations with combinatorial and epitaxial film studies. We address the following questions: What is the origin of the martensitic transformation? Can the addition of third elements improve the MSM properties? What is changing for epitaxial films and how can one obtain freestanding films?

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