Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 11

November 2013

Volume 15, Issue 11

Pages 1021–1155

  1. Cover Picture

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      Front Cover: Advanced Engineering Materials 11∕2013 (page 1021)

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370030

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      Novel ceramic-nanoparticulated film was developed by making use of the unstable and high-surface energy amorphous phase on the surface of particles that are produced in the deposition process for bonding the particles. A multilayered structure consisting of various ceramics with different sintering temperatures can be integrated in this methodology. For further details see the article by Yoshihiko Imanaka et al. on page 1129.

  2. Contents

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    5. Communications
    6. Communication
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      Adv. Eng. Mater. 11∕2013 (pages 1023–1028)

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370032

  3. Full Papers

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    1. Creep Properties in TiO2 Nanoparticle Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (pages 1029–1033)

      Jaehyuck Shin and Donghyun Bae

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300099

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      Creep behaviors of the aluminum composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles are studied at 523 K. The composites show enhanced creep resistance exhibiting high value of the apparent stress exponent and the high threshold stress. The true stress exponent of minimum creep strain rate is found to be 5. Negligible stress dependence in the creep rate is found when the applied stresses are <200 MPa.

    2. The Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Twinning in a Modern Single Crystal Ni-Based Superalloy TMS-82 (pages 1034–1039)

      Fei Sun, Jianxin Zhang and Hiroshi Harada

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300136

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      An interesting phenomenon was found after the thermo-mechanical cycling of single crystal superalloy TMS-82, which shows that deformation twins are prone to occurs close to the fracture region. Theoretical calculations give the critical resolved shear stress for twinning. The occurrence of a high density of deformation twins dues to the stress concentration close to the fracture region.

    3. Small-Scale Deformation of Pulsed Electric Current Sintered Silicon Oxycarbide Polymer Derived Ceramics (pages 1040–1045)

      Ravindran Sujith, Nedunchezhian Srinivasan and Ravi Kumar

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300146

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      Small-scale deformation behavior of pulsed electric current sintered silicon oxycarbide ceramics is investigated. The ceramics remained X-ray amorphous after sintering at 1300 °C in vacuum and a high density of ≈2.35 g cm−3 is achieved. An indentation hardness of ≈11 GPa and reduced elastic modulus of ≈105 GPa is observed. The load–displacement curves display significant elastic recovery with an elastic work ratio of ≈0.71. The evolution of Hertzian cone cracks upon microindentation indicates an anomalous deformation behavior.

    4. High Temperature Thermal Conductivity of Amorphous Al2O3 Thin Films Grown by Low Temperature ALD (pages 1046–1050)

      Andrea Cappella, Jean-Luc Battaglia, Vincent Schick, Andrzej Kusiak, Alessio Lamperti, Claudia Wiemer and Bruno Hay

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300132

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      Al2O3 grown by atomic layer deposition is proposed as a nonactive layer for back end processes in view of the integration of scaled phase change memory devices. It has been measured that the thermal conductivity of amorphous Al2O3 increases from 1.8 W K−1 m−1 at 50 °C to 3.3 W K−1 m−1 at 600 °C.

    5. Effect of Rotation Speed to Welding Speed Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum–Lithium Alloy Joints (pages 1051–1058)

      Wenya Li, Ruorong Jiang, Zhihan Zhang and Yu'E Ma

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300147

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      The ratio of rotation speed to welding speed (ω/ν) has great impact on the joint microstructure and menchanical properties. As the value of ω/ν increases from 2 to 4, the shape of the WN changes as well as the area of the WN increases. For ω/ν = 2, both sides of the “traperzoid” are slightly concave while as ω/ν = 4, both sides of “traperzoid” are slightly convex. Besides, with increasing ω/ν the microhardness of the joints decreases.

    6. Deformation Behavior of the Percolating Intermetallic Microstructure of High Pressure Die Cast AZ91 Alloy (pages 1059–1067)

      Bao Zhang, Anumalasetty V. Nagasekhar, Tharmalingam Sivarupan and Carlos H. Caceres

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300138

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      Available 3D data of the intermetallic obtained with focused dual ion beam tomography were used to simulate the deformation behavior. The modeling revealed a high structural compliance akin to the bending-dominated behavior of cellular solids. The high compliance suggests that the microstructure is able to reinforce the alloy without compromising the ductility, for strains above 1%. The interconnected network adds some 7 MPa to the total strength of the alloy.

    7. Comparison of UV-Curing, Hotmelt, and Pressure Sensitive Adhesive as Roll-to-Roll Encapsulation Methods for Polymer Solar Cells (pages 1068–1075)

      Markus Hösel, Roar R. Søndergaard, Mikkel Jørgensen and Frederik C. Krebs

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300172

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      We compare three promising roll-to-roll lamination methods (UV-curing, hotmelt, and pressure sensitive adhesive) for the encapsulation of fully solution processed and ITO-free polymer solar cells. The fabricated modules are evaluated with respect to ease of fabrication, speed, and lifetime. The devices are laminated either on the backside or both sides to compare the edge sealing effect of each adhesive.

    8. Growth of Sputtered Nanocomposite Alloys on Polymeric Substrates: The Role of the Substrate's Mechanical Hardness (pages 1076–1081)

      Kamil Zuber, Elisabeth Downey, Colin Hall, Peter Murphy and Drew Evans

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300179

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      Magnetron sputtered films are central to many new technologies, especially when combined with polymeric substrates. The seeding and growth of such films ultimately defines their properties and performance. In this paper we add to the knowledge of how thin films grow, by showing the mechanical perperties of the polymeric substrate play a role in defining the structure and properties of the deposited films.

  4. Communications

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    1. Influence of Natural Ageing and Deformation on Precipitation in an Al–Cu–Li Alloy (pages 1082–1085)

      Benjamin Decreus, Alexis Deschamps, Frédéric de Geuser and Christophe Sigli

      Version of Record online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300098

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      The influence of natural ageing and plastic deformation on precipitation in an Al–3 wt% Cu–1 wt% Li–(Mg,Ag) alloy is investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering. When predeformation is applied before artificial ageing, regardless of natural ageing, the T1 phase precipitates rapidly, resulting in a strong hardening response. When no deformation is applied, the T1 phase precipitates more sluggishly and the strengthening response is lowered.

    2. Generation of Crystalline Polyurethane Foams Using Millifluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Technologies (pages 1086–1098)

      Aouatef Testouri, Meik Ranft, Clément Honorez, Nessima Kaabeche, Jens Ferbitz, Daniel Freidank and Wiebke Drenckhan

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300077

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      We show how highly ordered polyurethane foams with equal-volume pores and well-controlled polymer properties can be generated using millifluidic Lab-on-a-Chip techniques with integrated flow-chemistry.

    3. Photoelastic Imaging of Residual Stress Distribution in Epoxy Interface Layers of Ceramics with Periodic Building-Block Structure (pages 1099–1104)

      Tobias Fey, Michael Götz and Peter Greil

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300034

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      Distribution of residual stresses generated by thermal expansion misfit in the epoxy interface bonding of two-dimensional sintered alumina building-block layers (tetragonal/monoclinic unit cell) is analyzed by photoelastic measurements. Additional FE calculation of Tresca's shear stress distribution in the interface bonding layer confirm a non-isostatic state of stress in the interface bonding layer with high stress anisotropy close to the building-block surfaces

    4. Microstructural Evolution of Severely Plastically Deformed Sensitized Aluminum 5456-H116 Treated by Ultrasonic Impact Treatment (pages 1105–1110)

      Kim N. Tran and Lourdes Salamanca-Riba

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300095

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      Sensitized aluminum 5456-H116 is characterized by a continuous network of β phase. The use of ultrasonic impact treatment refines the near surface microstructure to produce nanograins that vary in size from 2 to 200 nm in diameter. The deformation layer does not exhibit the presence of a continuous β phase indicating that the near surface microstructure undergoes recrystallization.

    5. Trapping of Metal Atoms on Nanoprotrusions of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1111–1114)

      Lidong Shao, Wei Zhang and Luise Theil Kuhn

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300144

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      Nanoprotrusions on CNTs are engineered using conventional lab treatments at a low temperature. The experimental set-up of applying a mild acid treatment with sonication and base washing is based on the development of introduced defects and vacancies. Compared with previous reports realizing selective metal depositions on individual carbon nanostructures, our work achieve a selective deposition of Pd nanoparticles on nanoprotrusions of CNTs in a bulk-phase.

    6. Structural Characterization and Wear Investigations of Palladium Layers Electrochemically Deposited Using Ionic Liquids (pages 1115–1121)

      Thomas Mehner, Daniela Nickel, Sissy Nehrkorn, Gloria Lanzinger, Reinhard Böck and Thomas Lampke

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300117

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      Correlations between deposition parameters of palladium films deposited from ionic liquids, microstructural properties, and the wear behavior are identified. The wear volume and calotte depths decrease, if tensile residual stresses are reduced. Cracks within the layer influence the wear resistance only marginally. Furthermore, results indicate that low pulse frequencies and long pulse lengths during deposition have positive effects on the wear results.

    7. PLLA/HA Composite Laminates (pages 1122–1124)

      Steferson Luiz Stares, Márcio Celso Fredel, Aguedo Aragones, Elazar Y. Gutmanas, Irena Gotman, Peter Greil and Nahum Travitzky

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200395

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      A composite material may be done in such a way that the final product may acquire some excellent properties that cannot be found individually in either material. Novel PLLA/HA multilayer composites are fabricated with different HA contents and sequence of stacking with the goal to produce devices for bone fracture fixation. Hydroxyapatite powder particles act as flaws in the continuous polymer matrix due to limited interfacial bonding with the polymer matrix and a limited effect on toughening mechanisms.

    8. 3D Characterization of an Intermetallic β/γ-Titanium Aluminide Alloy (pages 1125–1128)

      Michael Engstler, Svea Mayer, Christoph Pauly, Helmut Clemens and Frank Mücklich

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300041

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      Intermetallic titanium aluminides have evolved into a lightweight alternative to nickel-based superalloys because of their good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures combined with a low density. Potential fields of application include aircraft and automobile engines. Microstructure strongly influences a material's mechanical properties. Although conventional 2D image analysis provides statistically secure information about the microstructure, a complete understanding of the 3D arrangement (e.g. phase's connectivity) is not accessible. In this study, 2D image analysis, EBSD and FIB/SEM tomography are employed to analyze the 3D microstructure of a β/γ-TiAl alloy with a nominal composition of Ti-44Al-7Mo-0.1B (in at%).

    9. Nanoparticulated Dense and Stress-Free Ceramic Thick Film for Material Integration (pages 1129–1135)

      Yoshihiko Imanaka, Hideyuki Amada, Fumiaki Kumasaka, Norihiko Takahashi, Takahiro Yamasaki, Mari Ohfuchi and Chioko Kaneta

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300174

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      A dense, thick, and organic-binder-free ceramic film consisting of stress-free nanoparticles could be obtained at room temperature by making use of the unstable and high-surface energy amorphous phase on the surface of particles. Photolithography and wet etching can be adapted to the thick ceramic green-state film. A multilayered structure consisting of various ceramics with different sintering temperatures and Cu wiring can form on a Cu foil below 1000 °C.

    10. Forced Convective Drying of Wet Porous Asphalt Imaged with Neutron Radiography (pages 1136–1145)

      Lily D. Poulikakos, Saba Saneinejad, Marjan Sedighi Gilani, Iwan Jerjen, Eberhard Lehmann and Dominique Derome

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300027

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      Characterization of the drying process of porous asphalt (PA) is done using neutron radiography; showing that drying of PA follows two distinct phases with a first more rapid moisture loss followed by a slower moisture loss in presence of disconnected fluid pockets. Moisture content distribution would not be obtainable with traditional methods such as recording the mass versus time.

  5. Communication

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    1. Atomistic Study of Hydrogen Effect on Dislocation Nucleation at Crack Tip (pages 1146–1151)

      Mao Wen, Zhiyuan Li and Afrooz Barnoush

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300123

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      By atomistic simulations, we show that H is mainly absorbed on the surface of the crack tip in Ni and reveal that H switches from decreasing the activation energy for dislocation nucleation at low load to increasing it at high load, owing to H-reduced activation volume. This counterintuitive finding explains experimentally observed sharp cracks in the presence of H and provides a new atomistic vision of hydrogen embrittlement.

  6. Correction

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      Thermoelectric Properties of Nanocrystalline Silicon from a Scaled-Up Synthesis Plant (page 1152)

      Victor Kessler, Devendraprakash Gautam, Tim Hülser, Mathias Spree, Ralf Theissmann, Markus Winterer, Hartmut Wiggers, Gabi Schierning and Roland Schmechel

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300182

      This article corrects:

      Thermoelectric Properties of Nanocrystalline Silicon from a Scaled-Up Synthesis Plant1

      Vol. 15, Issue 5, 379–385, Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012

  7. Masthead

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      Adv. Eng. Mater. 11∕2013 (page 1155)

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370031

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