Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 12

Special Issue: Multi-Functional Filters for Metal Melt Filtration

December 2013

Volume 15, Issue 12

Pages 1157–1314

Issue edited by: Christos G. Aneziris

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
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      Front Cover: Advanced Engineering Materials 12∕2013 (page 1157)

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370033

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      The efficiency of highly stressable metallic components is highly determined by the materials quality and purity. During the production process, contaminations within the metal melt can occur resulting in defects in the form of inclusions. The cover shows the steel melting in a steel casting simulator at 1650°C. For further details see the article by Steffen Dudczig and co-workers.

  2. Masthead

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      Adv. Eng. Mater. 12∕2013 (page 1158)

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370034

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
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      Adv. Eng. Mater. 12∕2013 (pages 1159–1164)

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370035

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
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      Multi-Functional Filters for Metal Melt Filtration (page 1167)

      Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300496

  5. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
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    1. Interactions between Exogenous Spinel Inclusions with Endogenous Inclusions in a Steel Melt (pages 1168–1176)

      Christos G. Aneziris, Christina Schroeder, Undine Fischer, Harry Berek, Marcus Emmel, Jens Kortus, Lilit G. Amirkhanyan and Torsten Weißbach

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300155

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      Endogenous alumina inclusions are forwarded to the exogenous spinel inclusion, but they are not deposited on its surface, they just pass away. Only alumina endogenous inclusions with diffused Ti are deposited at the spinel exogenous inclusion.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Communication
    7. Full Papers
    1. Application of Oxide Coatings for Improved Steel Filtration with the Aid of a Metal Casting Simulator (pages 1177–1187)

      Steffen Dudczig, Christos G. Aneziris, Milan Dopita and David Rafaja

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300121

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      Carbon bonded alumina materials with mullite coating are simultaneously tested with uncoated materials in steel contact according to their clogging behaviour against non-metallic inclusions. No clogging of particles can be observed on the mullite coating. The investigations show a position-dependent decomposition of the mullite. These decompositions are caused by multiple reactions between coating and the substrate during heat-up as well as between coating and steel melt during the tests.

    2. Influence of the Chemistry of Surface Functionalized Ceramic Foam Filters on the Filtration of Alumina Inclusions in Steel Melts (pages 1188–1196)

      Marcus Emmel, Christos G. Aneziris, Gert Schmidt, Dominik Krewerth and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300118

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      Surface functionalized carbon bonded foam filters are evaluated with the aid of an industrial steel melt according to their performance to filtrate non-metallic inclusions. Exogenous alumina based non-metallic inclusions are introduced in the steel melt in order to distinguish the influence of the filter surface chemistry on the deposition of non-metallic inclusions. The used filters are examined after casting according to the population and chemistry of the deposited inclusions. Based on the deposition results an alumina coating leads to the highest deposition of alumina inclusions.

    3. Spinel Coating on Alumina Foam Ceramics for Aluminum Filtration (pages 1197–1205)

      Claudia Voigt, Eva Jäckel, Christos G. Aneziris and Jana Hubálková

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300111

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      Besides the macro-porosity, another key issue for the filtration efficiency is the influence of the filter surface. Therefore, the preparation of alumina filters with a spinel coating as a functionalized filter surface is investigated and optimized. Two different coating methods, spraying and centrifugation are compared in terms of the cold compression strength and homogeneity of the coating.

    4. Comparison of Interfacial Reactions Between AlSi7Mg and Alumina Filter After Casting and Spark Plasma Sintering** (pages 1206–1215)

      Anton Salomon, Tilo Zienert, Claudia Voigt, Eva Jäckel, Olga Fabrichnaya, David Rafaja and Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300114

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      The interface formation between melt of aluminum alloy AlSi7Mg at 750 °C and alumina ceramic foam filters is compared using “small impingement tests” (close to industrial metal melt filtration conditions) and powder metallurgical, convection-less “spark plasma sintering.” Using EDX and EPMA, indications for spinel formation (MgAl2O4) are found at the interface for short time contact. Thermodynamic calculations are conducted and spinel formation is confirmed.

    5. Effect of Filter Coating on the Quasi-Static and Cyclic Mechanical Properties of a G42CrMo4 Casting (pages 1216–1223)

      Sebastian Henschel, Dominik Krewerth, Felix Ballani, Anja Weidner, Lutz Krüger, Horst Biermann, Marcus Emmel and Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300125

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      The effect of ceramic filters in the steel casting process on the mechanical properties of G42CrMo4 was studied. A mullite coating on a carbon-bonded alumina filter leads to a higher content of large non-metallic inclusions and inclusion clusters, respectively, compared to the uncoated filter. These microstructural inhomogeneities have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties under quasi-static as well as cyclic loading. Inclusion clusters act as one large inclusion.

    6. Influence of Composition and Coking Temperature on the Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Bonded Al2O3–C Filter Materials (pages 1224–1229)

      Yvonne Klemm, Horst Biermann and Christos Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300159

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      Physical and mechanical properties of carbon-bonded Al2O3–C filter materials at room temperature and temperatures near to the steel casting process were determined dependent on the amount of binder and the coking temperature. The results of the CCS and CMOR tests show no significant differences caused by different coking temperatures. However, the strength values increase with increasing binder content. The refractoriness under load tests offer lower thermal expansion and earlier softening of the samples coked at 800 °C. Thus, a higher coking temperature tends to reduce softening at higher temperatures and results in a higher stability.

    7. Influence of the Content of Modified Coal Tar Pitch Powder on the Strength of Carbon Bonded Alumina (Al2O3–C) (pages 1230–1234)

      Stefan Soltysiak, Martin Abendroth, Meinhard Kuna and Steffen Dudczig

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300173

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      The strength of carbon bonded alumina, which is used for the production of open cell foam filters for the filtration of metal melts, is investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the influence of modified coal tar pitch powder on the strength of the Al2O3–C. The mechanical tests are carried out by means of the small punch test (SPT). Due to the quasi-brittle behavior of the material, the evaluation of statistical material parameters is necessary. The statistical evaluation is done by fitting a Weibull distribution to the strength data.

    8. Dynamic, In Situ Generated Interfaces Between Carbon-Bonded Alumina Filters and Steel During Spark Plasma Sintering/Field-Assisted Sintering (pages 1235–1243)

      Anton Salomon, Marcus Emmel, Steffen Dudczig, David Rafaja and Christos G. Aneziris

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300119

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      The heterogeneous reactions and interface creation between liquid steel and newly developed carbon bonded alumina ceramic filter (Al2O3-C) are examined. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is used to assure the absence of liquid convection. Very high heating rates of up to 1000 K min−1, short holding times just above liquidus temperature and a rapid cooling are applied. The focus of the research is put on inorganic inclusions, agglomerates, and phase formation.

    9. Phase Relations in the A356 Alloy: Experimental Study and Thermodynamic Calculations (pages 1244–1250)

      Tilo Zienert and Olga Fabrichnaya

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300113

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      A thermodynamic description of the Al–Fe–Si system is modified based on experimental data. Critically analyzed thermodynamic data of constituent ternary systems are combined into a quaternary description of the Al–Fe–Mg–Si and used to calculate solidification of A356 alloy in equilibrium and Scheil conditions. Experimental investigation of A356 alloy solidification by thermal analysis and electron microscopy indicate a good agreement with calculations.

    10. Investigation of the Damage Behavior of Cast Steel 42CrMo4 During Ultrasonic Fatigue by Combination of Thermography and Fractography (pages 1251–1259)

      Dominik Krewerth, Anja Weidner and Horst Biermann

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300124

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      The present paper illustrates the application of infrared thermography measurements for the investigation of fatigue behavior of different types of defects in the high-cycle fatigue range of cast steel 42CrMo4 alloy. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and thermography can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of crack initiation and propagation modes during ultrasonic fatigue of 42CrMo4 steel.

    11. In Situ Data Compression Algorithm for Detailed Numerical Simulation of Liquid Metal Filtration through Regularly Structured Porous Media (pages 1260–1269)

      Henry Lehmann, Eric Werzner, Miguel A. A. Mendes, Dimosthenis Trimis, Bernhard Jung and Subhashis Ray

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300129

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      In the field of metal melt filtration, numerical simulations are used to model and understand the internal mechanisms of the filtration process. However, large amounts of data resulting from such high-resolution simulations impose a severe bottleneck on storage, visualization, and analysis of the solutions. This article describes the numerical simulation of liquid metal flow through a foam-like filter structure coupled with in situ data compression in order to reduce data size to less than 20%.

    12. Thermophysical Properties of Pressed and Casted Carbon-Bonded Alumina (Al2O3-C) up to 800 °C (pages 1270–1279)

      Pitt Goetze, Rhena Wulf, Ulrich Gross, Milan Dopita, David Rafaja, Steffen Dudczig, Christos G. Aneziris, Yvonne Klemm and Horst B. Biermann

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300203

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      Carbon-bonded alumina with Carbores® P as binding agent is investigated experimentally with respect to microstructure and thermophysical properties. The values of coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are presented depending on mass fractions of Carbores® P and manufacturing route. In the temperature range up to 800 °C, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity are decreased by an increasing Carbores® P content, while the specific heat is not affected.

    13. Simulations of X-Ray Scattering on Two-Dimensional, Graphitic and Turbostratic Carbon Structures (pages 1280–1291)

      Milan Dopita, Martin Rudolph, Anton Salomon, Marcus Emmel, Christos G. Aneziris and David Rafaja

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300157

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      Simulations of X-ray scattered intensity distributions from two and three dimensional carbon nano structures of different shapes and sizes are done using the general Debye scattering equation. The influence of the lattice defects typical for the turbostratic structure, i.e., random fluctuations in the parallel layer spacings, random lateral translations of graphitic layers and mutual disorientations of individual parallel layers, on the resulting simulated X-ray scattered intensities are studied and discussed.

    14. Geometry Dependent Effective Elastic Properties of Open-Cell Foams Based on Kelvin Cell Models** (pages 1292–1298)

      Johannes Storm, Martin Abendroth, Dongshuang Zhang and Meinhard Kuna

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300141

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      Dealing with ceramic open-cell foams, some kinds of computer simulations require accurate volumetric models for high quality results. Due to large computational effort, less complex models like beam models are often used. The present work analyses differences of effective elastic properties between both models of a Kelvin-cell and the influence of certain geometry details beside relative density.

    15. Impact of Wetting to the Agglomeration of Dispersed Particles in an Aqueous Medium (pages 1299–1306)

      Jörg Fritzsche, Jakob Teichmann, Fabian Heuzeroth, Karl Gerald van den Boogaart and Urs Alexander Peuker

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300120

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      To improve the filtration of metal melts an agglomeration of small particles in necessary. In this paper the influence of the wetting behavior on the agglomeration process is studied. Therefore, AFM measurements are carried out and the results are used to perform simulations of the agglomeration process. Filtration experiments are realized to confirm the results.

    16. Numerical Investigation on the Depth Filtration of Liquid Metals: Influence of Process Conditions and Inclusion Properties (pages 1307–1314)

      Eric Werzner, Miguel A. A. Mendes, Subhashis Ray and Dimosthenis Trimis

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300465

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      The article proposes an alternative approach for the numerical simulation of depth filtration of liquid metals using ceramic foam filters, which is expected to significantly reduce the computation time compared to established methods. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the filtration efficiency on the inclusion properties and the process conditions.

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