Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 3

Special Issue: Porous Metals and Metal Foams

March 2013

Volume 15, Issue 3

Pages 73–179

Issue edited by: Bo-Young Hur, Seung-Eun Kim, John Banhart, Francisco García Moreno

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
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      Front Cover Advanced Engineering Materials 3/2013 (page 73)

      Qiang Zhang, Hiroyuki Toda, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kentaro Uesugi and Yoshio Suzuki

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370005

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      The microstructure of metallic foams can be analyzed three-dimensionally via the synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography. The 3D morphology of the cell wall of an Al-Zn-Mg foam has been revealed. The solid matrix is virtually removed in the right half of the figure, visualizing the spatial distribution of micro-pores inside the cell wall. For details see the article by Zhang et al. on page 149.

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
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      Adv. Eng. Mater. 3/2013 (page 74)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370006

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Adv. Eng. Mater. 3/2013 (pages 75–79)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370007

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
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      Editorial (page 81)

      Prof. Bo-Young Hur, Dr. Seung-Eun Kim, Prof. John Banhart and Dr. Francisco García Moreno

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300056

  5. Review

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Light-Metal Foams—History of Innovation and Technological Challenges (pages 82–111)

      John Banhart

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200217

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      The history of metallic foams dates back to 1926. Most of the techniques used today were proposed in the 1950s, but refinement of methods to a state allowing for industrial application has taken place only recently. Based on earlier developments, many new processing routes have been proposed. These and attempts to commercialize metal foams are reviewed.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Editorial
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    1. Viability Study of the Use of Cast Iron Open Cell Foam as Microbial Fuel Cell Electrodes (pages 112–117)

      Carlo Mapelli, Valeria Mapelli, Lisbeth Olsson, Davide Mombelli, Andrea Gruttadauria and Silvia Barella

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200144

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      Microbial fuel cells (MFC) represents a promising alternative to carbon based energy sources. The study deals with the implementation of cast iron sponge as electrodes, aiming at increasing the exposed surface and thus the current density at the MFC anode. The positive results of using foam as electrode suggests interesting future developments of MFC–foam system: developing non-toxic high corrosion resistance material based foams and investigating the effect of different S/V ratios on the performances of MFC.

    2. Influence of Powder Size on Production Parameters and Properties of Syntactic Invar Foams Produced by Means of Metal Powder Injection Moulding (pages 118–122)

      Jörg Weise, Natalie Salk, Ulrike Jehring, Joachim Baumeister, Dirk Lehmhus and Mohamed A. Bayoumi

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200129

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      The sintering of syntactic foams produced by means of MIM is characterized by a complex interaction of the metal powder and the integrated hollow spheres. Ni-powder size was varied in the production of FeNi36 syntactic foams in order to investigate its influence on the sintering behavior and on the mechanical foam properties like vibration damping and tensile strength.

    3. Metal Foams with Graded Pore Size for Heat Transfer Applications (pages 123–128)

      Gael Zaragoza and Russell Goodall

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200166

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      Open cell metal foams show great potential as a heat exchangers, due to their permeability to fluids and the high conductivity of the metallic network. In this study, aluminum foams were produced using the replication technique with NaCl, flour, and water used to create the preform. The samples included both uniform pore sizes and examples where different pore sizes were created in different parts of the sample. A bespoke rig was used to measure the thermal and fluid flow performance of the foams, and results for heat transfer coefficient are presented. It is also found that asymmetric behavior can be obtained when non-uniform pore sizes are present; a factor that could be exploited in heat exchanger design.

    4. Foaming of Aluminum Alloys Derived From Scrap (pages 129–133)

      G. S. Vinod Kumar, Korbinian Heim, Francisco Garcia-Moreno, John Banhart and Andrew R. Kennedy

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200122

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      Aluminum machining chips have been successfully foamed using processes analogous to both the “Alporas” and “Formgrip” methods. The chips provide large fractions of both clustered and dispersed oxide films to the liquid, which enhances its “foamability.” Through additional alloying with Mg and “melt conditioning,” fragmentation and wetting of the oxides occurs and foams with low densities, good pore structures, and good stability are obtained.

    5. Direct Synthesis of Periodic Mesoporous SilicoBoron CarboNitride Frameworks via the Nanocasting from Ordered Mesoporous Silica with Boron-Modified Polycarbosilazane (pages 134–140)

      Samuel Bernard, Olivier Majoulet, Fabien Sandra, Annie Malchere and Philippe Miele

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200168

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      Periodic mesoporous SilicoBoron CarboNitride (Si3.0B1.0C3.9N1.8) frameworks with p6mm hexagonal symmetry, a specific surface area of 337 m2 g−1, a high pore volume (0.55 cm3 g−1) and a narrow pore-size distribution centered on 4.6 nm with an amorphous network remaining stable during continuous heat-treatment to 1400 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere have been prepared by a direct nanocasting process of ordered mesoporous silica with a boron-modified polycarbosilazane (BmPS).

    6. Metal Foaming Studied In Situ by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction of Synchrotron Radiation, X-Ray Radioscopy, and Optical Expandometry (pages 141–148)

      Catalina Jiménez, Francisco Garcia-Moreno, Beate Pfretzschner, Paul Hans Kamm, Tillmann Robert Neu, Manuela Klaus, Christoph Genzel, André Hilger, Ingo Manke and John Banhart

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200183

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      Three synchronized methods are combined for studying in situ the foaming of AlSi11 using as-received TiH2 or pre-oxidized TiH2−x as blowing agents. Phase transformations are followed by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation. The internal structure of the foam is monitored by X-ray radioscopy and a video camera records the foam expansion. The phase transformations of TiH2 and TiH2−x inside expanding foams are reported here for the first time.

    7. Characterization of Cell Wall Microstructure and Damage Behavior of Alloyed Aluminum Foam via Synchrotron-Based Microtomography (pages 149–152)

      Qiang Zhang, Hiroyuki Toda, Masakazu Kobayashi, Kentaro Uesugi and Yoshio Suzuki

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200142

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      The internal microstructural features of the Al–Zn–Mg foam, such as content, size distribution, shape and spatial distribution of micro-pores inside the cell wall, were characterized via the synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography. Together with a dual energy imaging technique, the 3D distribution of Zn in the alloyed foam was assessed. The damage behavior was also clarified by this element sensitive imaging technique.

    8. High-Resolution Microfocus X-Ray Computed Tomography for 3D Surface Roughness Measurements of Additive Manufactured Porous Materials (pages 153–158)

      Greet Kerckhofs, Grzegorz Pyka, Maarten Moesen, Simon Van Bael, Jan Schrooten and Martine Wevers

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200156

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      A novel protocol for surface roughness measurements of 3D additive manufactured (AM) porous structures based on high-resolution micro-CT images is described. The roughness parameters are determined based on the profile lines of the strut surfaces in the binarized 2D cross-sectional micro-CT images. Validation of this novel methodology shows that micro-CT can be applied accurately for micro-scale surface roughness quantification of 3D AM porous materials, but depending on the dimensions of the roughness, the micro-CT acquisition parameters need to be fine-tuned.

    9. Properties of Titanium Foams for Biomedical Applications (pages 159–165)

      Louis-Philippe Lefebvre and Eric Baril

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200154

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      Structure, microstructure, and properties of CpTi and Ti6Al4V foams and coating produced with a powder metallurgy process are presented. Alloying elements and oxygen in solution increase the foam mechanical strength but lower their ductility. Good metallurgical bonding is created between CpTi foam coating and Ti6Al4V substrates and shear strength above the FDA requirements are obtained.

    10. Effect of Pore Morphology on Deformation Behaviors in Porous Al by FEM Simulations (pages 166–169)

      Yi Je Cho, Wook Jin Lee, Sung Kyun Park and Yong Ho Park

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200145

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      Effect of porosity and pore shape on compressive deformation behaviors of porous Al is analyzed using 3D finite element method. Representative volume elements of porous microstructures, having four different pore morphologies, are reconstructed using random sequential adsorption algorithm. Consideration of pore morphology can give qualitative information on deformation behaviors of porous metals, and thus may be helpful to design and optimize of the materials.

    11. High Temperature Oxidation of Ni–Fe–Cr–Al Porous Metal (pages 170–174)

      Sung-Hwan Choi, Jae-Sung Oh, Jung-Yeul Yun, Young-Min Kong, Byoung-Kee Kim and Kee-Ahn Lee

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200140

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      It is apparent that the oxidation resistance of porous metal decreases with decreasing pore size (increasing surface area). It should be also noted here that the weight gain in the porous metals (regardless of the pore size) are significantly large compared with that of the bulk metal (0.19 mg cm−2 at 1100 °C oxidation temperature for 24 h).

    12. Relation of Cell Uniformity and Mechanical Property of a Close Cell Aluminum Foam (pages 175–179)

      Wang Deqing

      Article first published online: 19 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200135

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      Closed-cell aluminum foams with uniform and non-uniform cell size are prepared by air-foaming aluminum melt with two techniques. The uniform-celled aluminum foam presents an overall 25% improvement of the yield strength over the one for the non-uniform celled aluminum foam with the same density, and a decreased energy absorption ability.

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