Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 6

June 2013

Volume 15, Issue 6

Pages 417–528

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
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      Front Cover Advanced Engineering Materials 6/2013 (page 417)

      Yukari Hamamoto and Ko Okumura

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370014

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      Bioinspired by an extremely tough biocomposite, nacre, we performed numerical calculations of the layered structure in the presence of a crack. The crack-tip stress for the model composite is turned out to be significantly mitigated as demonstrated by the inset, following the simple scaling law. For further details see the article by Ko Okumura et al. on page 522.

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Adv. Eng. Mater. 6/2013 (page 418)

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370015

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    1. You have free access to this content
      Adv. Eng. Mater. 6/2013 (pages 419–423)

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201370016

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    1. Thermal Conductivity of ZrB2[BOND]SiC[BOND]B4C from 25 to 2000 °C (pages 425–433)

      Fei Peng, Rebecca Erdman, Gregg Van Laningham, Robert F. Speyer and Robert Campbell

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200298

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      The thermal conductivities (k) of three ZrB2–SiC–B4C compositions were determined over 25–2000 °C using the laser flash technique. Higher SiC concentration increased the k temperature sensitivity. Finite difference calculations of k based on microstructures correctly predicted temperature and phase concentration dependencies. The k of pure ZrB2 and SiC as a function of temperature were iteratively back-calculated from the experimental results.

    2. On the Immersion Testing of Degradable Implant Materials in Simulated Body Fluid: Active pH Regulation Using CO2 (pages 434–441)

      Michael Schinhammer, Joëlle Hofstetter, Christian Wegmann, Frank Moszner, Jörg F. Löffler and Peter J. Uggowitzer

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200218

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      This study presents the results from immersion tests of biodegradable Mg and Fe in simulated body fluid buffered with gaseous CO2. The particular advantage of controlling the pH value by means of CO2 is that the physiological conditions are better reproduced; hence the in vitro experiments are closer to the in vivo situation.

    3. Microstructural Parameters and Their Effect on the Indentation Hardness of Electrodeposited and Annealed Nickel–Iron Micro-Specimens (pages 442–448)

      Martin-T. Schmitt, Joachim E. Hoffmann and Dietmar Eifler

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200253

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      Using the direct-LIGA technology, nickel–iron micro-specimens are serially produced by a micro-gear drive manufacturer and subsequently annealed within the temperature range between 180 and 800 °C. The microstructure (grain size, lattice strain, and texture) is characterized using XRD measurements. Following electrodeposition, nano-crystalline microstructures result with grain size of approximately 10 nm. The transmission electron microscope images confirm the XRD results. The lattice strain decreases in the temperature range from 200 to 300 °C and grain growth results for an annealing temperature from approximately 260 °C. The annealing treatment produced no essential changes in the material's texture. Analysis of the indentation hardness and indentation modulus demonstrates considerable changes above 200 °C.

    4. In Situ Qualitative Inspection of Hole Exit Delamination at Bottom-Ply during Drilling of Woven CFRP Epoxy Composite Laminates (pages 449–463)

      Ali Faraz and Dirk Biermann

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200342

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      An in-situ examination of hole exit delamination at the bottom-ply during drilling holes in the selected woven CFRP is presented. The advent, accruement and shape-pattern of the exit delamination are discussed via some experimental observations. A few illustrative models are also proposed. An attempt to correlate exit delamination results with the instantaneous cutting angle configurations right at the bottom-ply is also made in this article.

    5. Fabrication of Gradient TiO2 Nanotubes on Ti Foil by Anodization (pages 464–468)

      Jia-Hua Ni, Christine J. Frandsen, Li-Han Chen, Yan-Yan Zhang, Jirapon Khamwannah, Guo He, Ting-Ting Tang and Sungho Jin

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200311

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      Gradient TiO2 nanotubes with tube diameters ranging from 55 to 105 nm and lengths ranging from 300 nm to 500 across 12 mm of Ti foil are obtained by a new anodization based method in HF electrolyte using applied voltage as low as 5–20 V. In the method, the applied anodization voltage is increased step by step, while the Ti foil is immersed into electrolyte progressively during anodization.

    6. Development of Residual Stresses and Texture in Drawn Copper Tubes (pages 469–475)

      Adele Carradò, Heinz-Guenter Brokmeier, Thilo Pirling, Robert Charles Wimpory, Norbert Schell and Heinz Palkowski

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200161

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      Geometrical inhomogeneities in seamless tubes result in a non-symmetric residual stress and texture distribution. Controlling the inhomogeneities leads to a change and even improvement of the mechanical status. As a point of investigation the effect of the thickness deviation over circumference in seamless tubes was analyzed by neutron diffraction for the residual stresses and by synchrotron radiation for the texture.

    7. Surface Nanocrystalline of Martensite Steel Induced by Sandblasting at High Temperature (pages 476–479)

      Licai Fu and Dongyang Li

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200252

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      Surface nanocrystalline of martensite steel has been successfully prepared by using sandblasting technique at room temperature combined post-annealing and at 500 °C, respectively. The average grain sizes of surfaces are 112 and 30 nm, respectively. Fine grains and Fe3C phase in situ form during sandblasting at 500 °C that is favor for producing nanoscale structure of the martensite steel.

    8. Investigation of the Thermal Shock Behavior of Ceramic Using a Combination of Experimental Testing and FE-Simulation Methods (pages 480–484)

      Wei Zhang, Nikolay Doynov, Matthias Wolf, Ossama Dreibati, Ralf Ossenbrink and Vesselin Michailov

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200241

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      With the technological evolution of the refractory materials and products, new testing technology and simulation methods are requested and developed, which can be used to investigate their thermomechanical properties and thermal shock behavior. The present work focuses on the development of a combined testing method based on physical and thermomechanical numerical simulation to study the thermal shock behavior of refractory ceramics.

    9. Influence of Low Level Ag Additions on Mg-Alloy AZ91 (pages 485–490)

      K. Gusieva, T. Sato, G. Sha, S. P. Ringer and N. Birbilis

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200321

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      Low level silver (Ag) additions of 0.12 and 0.5 wt% to magnesium alloy AZ91 reveal that micro-alloying with Ag was capable of imparting an increment in hardness, with no significant increase in electrochemical corrosion kinetics. The alloy properties were reconciled with microstructural analyses and atom probe tomography.

    10. Mechanical Properties of Solid-Sintered Porous Silicon Carbide Ceramics (pages 491–495)

      Kai-Hui Zuo, Yu-Ping Zeng and Dongliang Jiang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200278

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      The freeze-drying combining solid sintering is a good method to fabricate porous SiC ceramics with good high temperature mechanical properties. Though SiC ceramics are sintered at high temperature of 2150 °C, there are still large quantities of macropores and micropores. After being treated at a temperature of 1200 °C, the ceramics exhibit good thermal shock damage resistance.

    11. Fatigue Damage Behavior of Freestanding 40 µm-Thick Nickel Foils for MEMS Applications (pages 496–502)

      Jin Xu and Guang-Ping Zhang

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200264

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      There is an evident difference in fatigue behavior of freestanding 40 µm-thick Ni foils loaded normal to and parallel to the rolling direction. An EBSD analysis reveals that fatigue cracking along grain boundaries (GBs) or slip bands in the foils depends on the difference in Schmid factor of the grains along GBs and the misorientation angle of the GB. A model is proposed to understand the fatigue damage mechanism.

    12. Advanced Design of Hierarchical Topographies in Metallic Surfaces by Combining Micro-Coining and Laser Interference Patterning (pages 503–509)

      Carsten Gachot, Andreas Rosenkranz, Burkhard Wietbrock, Gerhard Hirt and Frank Mücklich

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200295

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      The tailoring of surface properties requires a method being able to access structural sizes ranging from sub µm up to some 100 µm or even more. So far, several mechanical techniques such as embossing, cast moulding, or lithography based methods are needed to create the necessary structures on different scales. Therefore, a new technology combination is studied within this work on aluminum surfaces. The idea is based upon the combination of laser interference metallurgy for the advanced design of topographies and microstructures with micro-coining leading to superior hierarchical surface textures.

    13. Realization of a Titanium Spinal Implant with a Gradient in Porosity by 2-Component-Metal Injection Moulding (pages 510–521)

      Ana Paula Cysne Barbosa, Martin Bram, Detlev Stöver and Hans Peter Buchkremer

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201200289

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      In the current study, titanium spinal implants with a gradient in porosity were produced by combining the 2-Component-Metal Injection Moulding technique with the space holder method. Net-shape production was accomplished using feedstocks with and without space holder particles, in a fully automated injection process. The gradient in porosity is attractive for biomedical implants, as it combines low porous parts with high mechanical strength with highly porous parts, which promote a stable interlock between bone tissue and implant.

    14. Realistic Numerical Analysis of a Bioinspired Layered Composite with a Crack: Robust Scaling Laws and Crack Arrest (pages 522–528)

      Yukari Hamamoto and Ko Okumura

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bioinspired by an extremely tough biocomposite, nacre, found inside certain seashells, we perform finite-element calculations of the layered structure in the presence of a crack. Generally, such a crack deprives materials of strength since the stress is highly concentrated at the tips of a crack as demonstrated on the right (color stands for the stress intensity). Our results for the model composite revealed that the crack-tip stress is significantly reduced, following a simple scaling law.

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