Advanced Engineering Materials

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 16, Issue 2

Pages 129–262

  1. Cover Picture

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
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      Front Cover: Advanced Engineering Materials 2∕2014 (page 129)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201470005

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      An unconventional phenomenon is discovered that a stream of liquid metal gallium flow quickly breaks up into tens of thousands of micro-scale droplets when jetted into free-space solutions with surfactant, as described in the article by Jing Liu and co-workers on page 255. This is due to gallium's strong surface tension and interactions with the surrounding fluids. This fundamental effect opens an extremely low cost way for large scale preparation of metal droplets and particles.

  2. Back Cover

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    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
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      Back Cover: Advanced Engineering Materials 2∕2014 (page 263)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201470006

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      A first-of-a-kind, solid state process is used to foam loose metal powder to 40% porosity and bulk compacts to 70% porosity. Focused ion beam sectioning reveals expansion within individual particles and allows 3D digital reconstruction of the interior (shown in the inset images). The foamed particles are characterized by micron-sized, interconnected channels. The process is both simple and scalable. More details can be found in the article byMark A. Atwater and co-worker on page 190.

  3. Masthead

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      Masthead: Adv. Eng. Mater. 2∕2014 (page 130)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201470007

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
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      Contents: Adv. Eng. Mater. 2∕2014 (pages 131–136)

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201470008

  5. Communications

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    4. Masthead
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    6. Communications
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    1. FE-Simulation of Machining Induced Phase Transformations Considering Friction as a Function of Temperature and Sliding Speed and Detailed Modeling of the Heat Transport (pages 137–141)

      Volker Schulze, Frederik Zanger, Nikolay Boev, Jürgen Michna, Ulrich Maas, Carsten Faltin, Johannes Schneider and Patrick Bollig

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300103

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      2D-FE-cutting simulation for the steel 42CrMo4 (AISI4140) including the prediction of machining induced phase transformations at the workpiece surface layer. The model predicts thickness, composition, and hardness of transformed workpiece material.

    2. Phase-Field Modeling of Diffusion Coupled Crack Propagation Processes (pages 142–146)

      Daniel Schneider, Michael Selzer, Johannes Bette, Idoia Rementeria, Alexander Vondrous, Michael J. Hoffmann and Britta Nestler

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300073

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      Computational models based on the phase-field method operate on a mesoscopic length scale providing microstructure and mechanical property relations. We derive a quantitative phase-field model capable of describing the coupled diffusion of the surrounding water and the stress evolution during dynamic fracture formation under applied load in glass materials.

    3. Simulation of the Manufacturing Process of Case-Hardened Powder Metallurgical Components: Carburizing Simulation (pages 147–150)

      Volker Schulze, Jürgen Hoffmeister and Philipp Nusskern

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300101

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      Performing a surface densification prior to case hardening enables to adjust a definite carbon depth profile in powder metallurgical components. Due to the mechanical surface treatment, the open porous microstructure is transferred into a densified graded porous near surface layer, avoiding capillary effects of open pores.

    4. Rapid Sintering of Porous Monoliths Assembled from Microbeads with High Specific Surface Area and Multimodal Porosity (pages 151–155)

      Thomas C. Schumacher, Tanja Y. Klein, Laura Treccani and Kurosch Rezwan

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300220

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      Ceramic microbead derived monolithic adsorbents (MAds), consisting of Al2O3/SiO2, are prepared and subsequently sintered rapidly (<5 min) in a tube furnace. By applying rapid sintering, an approximately 60-fold decrease is observed in the total sintering time required for the ceramics. The obtained materials exhibit a high specific surface area, which is up to 68% higher compared to conventionally sintered samples, leading to a quicker adsorption of molecules.

    5. A Novel Bioinspired Multilayered Polymer–Ceramic Composite with Outstanding Crack Resistance (pages 156–160)

      Kamen Tushtev, Michael Gonsior, Michael Murck, Georg Grathwohl and Kurosch Rezwan

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300204

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      The feasibility of designing artificial bioinspired ceramic composites with very high crack resistance is demonstrated by bounding of zirconium oxide sheets (70 μm thickness) with only a few micrometers thin adhesive layers. The small amount of organic adhesive (about 5.8 vol%) provides the composite with a crack resistance exceeding 18 MPam1/2, which is about four times as high as that of the basic ceramic material.

    6. Approaching Carbon Nanotube Reinforcing Limit in B4C Matrix Composites Produced by Chemical Vapor Infiltration (pages 161–166)

      Kaiyuan Li, Yingchao Yang, Zhanjun Gu, Jane Y. Howe, Gyula Eres, Litong Zhang, Xiaodong Li and Zhengwei Pan

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300303

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      Toughening ceramics has been a long-standing challenge. By chemically infiltrating B4C into aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sheets, we fabricate a novel CNT/B4C composite with a fracture strength approaching the theoretical maximum of B4C matrix. The CNT/B4C composites simultaneously possess a strongly bonded tube/matrix interface and an amorphous, crack-free B4C matrix. The fracture strength of the CNT/B4C nanowires is about 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the bulk B4C.

    7. Extraordinary Toughening by Cryorolling in Zr (pages 167–170)

      Yindong Shi, Ming Li, Defeng Guo, Tengyun Ma, Zhibo Zhang, Xiaohong Li, Guosheng Zhang and Xiangyi Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300153

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      Deformed materials usually show a hardening behavior, i.e. enhanced strength accompanied with reduced ductility. Here, we report an extraordinary toughening behavior in cryorolled Zr, i.e. a simultaneous enhancement of the strength and ductility with strain. This unusual increase of ductility results from the motion of preexisting high-density dislocations in tensile processes. The high-density dislocations also contribute to the enhanced strength.

    8. The Three-Dimensional Morphology of Topologically Close Packed Phases in a High Rhenium Containing Nickel Based Superalloy (pages 171–175)

      Kamil Matuszewski, Ralf Rettig, Marcin Rasiński, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski and Robert F. Singer

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300198

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      The three-dimensional morphology of topologically close packed phases (TCP) in an experimental 6 wt% rhenium-containing superalloy is examined with focused ion beam tomography and compared to the existing knowledge gained with classical microscopy of two-dimensional cross-sections. The results show completely new insights compared to investigation of cross-sections. With the new technique, three different types of TCP-phase morphologies and the orientation of their growth planes could be identified: complex shaped plates, needles, and laths. In the classical cross-section, they all appear to be needles. A part of the needles is penetrating the plate-like precipitates. Possible conclusions on the growth mechanism are discussed.

    9. Oxidation Behavior at 1600 °C of Si-SiC-ZrB2 Composites Produced by Si Reactive Infiltration (pages 176–183)

      Giuseppe Claudio D'Amico, Alberto Ortona, Sara Biamino, Paolo Fino, Claudio Badini and Claudio D'Angelo

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300261

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      Si–SiC–ZrB2 are produced by the reactive infiltration with molten silicon in porous SiC–C–ZrB2 preforms. It is observed that oxidized Si–SiC–ZrB2 ceramics present a layered structure composed of an outer layer of silica and a borosilicate glass intermediate layer with ZrO2 particles and the unoxidized bulk material. The graphs show that the passivation is very effective already after 5 min of oxidation. The thermograms do not vary significantly when the oxidation times are increased.

    10. Design and Fabrication of Hollow Rigid Nanolattices via Two-Photon Lithography (pages 184–189)

      Lauren C. Montemayor, Lucas R. Meza and Julia R. Greer

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300254

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      This paper presents the design and fabrication of 3-dimensional hollow metallic nanolattices using 2-photon lithography, shown in the figure. The ability to fabricate structures of any geometry, with resolution down to 150 nm, provides opportunities to engineer structures spanning multiple length scales with potential to capitalize on combined structural and material size effects for use in many technological applications.

    11. Towards Reaching the Theoretical Limit of Porosity in Solid State Metal Foams: Intraparticle Expansion as A Primary and Additive Means to Create Porosity (pages 190–195)

      Mark A. Atwater, Kris A. Darling and Mark A. Tschopp

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300431

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      A first-of-a-kind solid state processing method is reported for creating metal foams with up to 40% porosity within powder particles, termed AERO (Additive Expansion by the Reduction of Oxides). In this first study, a complex fully foamed Cu–Sb sintered part is produced with close to 70% porosity and this could theoretically be even higher.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. 6Li Embedded Biaxially Stretched Scintillation Films for Thermal Neutron Detection and Neutron/Gamma Discrimination (pages 196–201)

      Rohit Uppal, Indraneel Sen, Dayakar Penumadu, Stephen A. Young, Matthew J. Urffer and Laurence F. Miller

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300237

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      Biaxially stretched composite polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films (BSCPF) embedded with 6LiF and luminescent molecules had 20.2% higher neutron light yield as compared to unstretched composite film above lower level discriminator corresponding to an intrinsic efficiency for gamma <10−6. BSCPF meets the target criteria for absolute neutron detection and neutron gamma discrimination.

    2. FEM-BEM Code for the Multiscale Modeling and Computer Aided Design of Wire Drawing Technology for Magnesium Alloys (pages 202–210)

      Andrzej Milenin, Piotr Kustra and Dorota Byrska-Wójcik

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300279

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      The determination of hyperfine wire drawing process parameters for hardly deformable biocompatible magnesium alloys is the idea of the paper. The forecasting of material state without fracture during drawing requires modeling of intergranular fracture. For this purpose new multiscale BEM-FEM model of the fracture is proposed. The results of simulation in meso-scale are verified using the experimental drawing process.

    3. Effects of Different Substrates on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of a Bimodal Bulk Nano/Micro Grained 1020 Carbon Steels Prepared by Aluminothermic Reaction Casting (pages 211–217)

      Pei Qing La, Xiao Juan Zhen, Xue Feng Lu, Yu Peng Wei, Cui Ling Li and Su Lei Hu

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300209

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      A novel method named aluminothermic reaction casting to obtain bimodal nano/micro grain structure of 1020 carbon steel is introduced. The differences in the precipitation behaviors of ferrite lead to bimodal microstructure formation. The mechanical properties of this structure are improved greatly, which make it possible to be used as novel method to generate carbon steel materials.

    4. Brushite and Self-Healing Flexible Polymer-Modified Brushite Bone Adhesives for Fibular Osteotomy Repair (pages 218–230)

      Ensanya A. Abou Neel, Vehid Salih, Peter A. Revell and Anne M. Young

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300218

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      The performance of two injectable degradable experimental bone adhesives (brushite cement and polymer-modified brushite composite) has been compared. The polymer modification enables pre-mixing and better control of set. The brushite component of the composite provides both “bulk”- and “surface-self healing” potential. The composites are more flexible and allow complete healing of fibula osteotomy.

    5. Subtree Reuse in Multi-Frontal Solvers for Regular Grids in Step-and-Flash Imprint Nanolithography Modeling (pages 231–240)

      Marcin Sieniek and Maciej Paszynski

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300267

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      The paper presents multi-scale modeling of the step-and-flash imprint lithography, a modern patterning process. The internal part is modeled with finite elements while the outer part uses a more precise particle model. In order to improve the performance of software modeling of the finite element part of the domain, we propose an optimization technique for multi-frontal direct solvers with constant coefficients. The technique consists in reuse of sub-branches of elimination trees over regular cube-shaped grids built with hexahedral finite elements.

    6. Processing of Magnesium Porous Structures by Infiltration Casting for Biomedical Applications (pages 241–247)

      Javier Trinidad, Iñigo Marco, Gurutze Arruebarrena, Joachim Wendt, Dietmar Letzig, Eneko Sáenz de Argandoña and Russell Goodall

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300236

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      Magnesium alloys are considered as a promising biomaterial to be used in scaffolds. The present work sets up the fabrication procedure to manufacture porous magnesium scaffolds; for this the replication casting has been used processing five different biodegradable magnesium alloys. The temperature and infiltration pressure ranges have been defined as being from 740 to 755 °C and from 4 to 6 bar, respectively.

    7. Sand Supported Mixed-Phase TiO2 Photocatalysts for Water Decontamination Applications (pages 248–254)

      Dorian A. H. Hanaor and Charles C. Sorrell

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300259

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      To facilitate enhanced available surface area while maintaining easy catalyst recoverability, naturally occurring quartz, zircon, and rutile sands are used as low-cost granular substrates for nanocrystalline coatings of mixed anatase-rutile TiO2 photocatalysts. Fabricated materials are characterized by Raman spectroscopy and SEM and are applied for the photocatalyzed inactivation of E. coli bacteria in recirculating water.

    8. Channelless Fabrication for Large-Scale Preparation of Room Temperature Liquid Metal Droplets (pages 255–262)

      Yang Yu, Qian Wang, Liting Yi and Jing Liu

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/adem.201300420

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      An unconventional phenomenon happens that jetting liquid metal gallium stream into solutions with surfactant quickly breaks up into large numbers of glistening droplets. We attribute the droplets generation mechanisms to the interactions between two fluids and the strong surface tension the liquid metal owns.

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