We gratefully thank Stéphanie Pasche and Firat Durmaz for synthesizing the polymers; Prof. Henry Baltes and Donat Scheiwiller for access to the clean room facilities; Dr. Gabor Csucs and Jost Lussi for support with the confocal laser scanning microscope; Dr. Janos Vörös, Laurent Feuz, and Marc Dusseiller for valuable discussions (all ETH Zürich). Dr. Paul Hug and Dr. Beat Keller, EMPA Dübendorf, are thanked for their help with the ToF-SIMS measurements. This work was financially supported by EPF Lausanne, ETH Zurich and the Swiss Priority Program on Nanotechnology (TOP NANO 21).
A Combined Photolithographic and Molecular-Assembly Approach to Produce Functional Micropatterns for Applications in the Biosciences†
Article first published online: 2 SEP 2004
Copyright © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Advanced Functional Materials
Volume 14, Issue 8, pages 749–756, August, 2004
How to Cite
Falconnet, D., Koenig, A., Assi, F. and Textor, M. (2004), A Combined Photolithographic and Molecular-Assembly Approach to Produce Functional Micropatterns for Applications in the Biosciences. Adv. Funct. Mater., 14: 749–756. doi: 10.1002/adfm.200305182
- Issue published online: 2 SEP 2004
- Article first published online: 2 SEP 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 MAR 2004
- Manuscript Received: 15 DEC 2003
Chemical patterns have attracted substantial interest for applications in the field of biosensors, fundamental cell–surface interaction studies, tissue engineering, and biomaterials. A novel micropatterning technique is proposed here that combines a top–down approach based on photolithography and a bottom–up strategy through self-organization of multifunctional molecules. The development of the molecular-assembly patterning by lift-off (MAPL) has been driven by the need to economically produce patches incorporating a controlled surface density of bioligands while inhibiting non-specific adsorption. In the MAPL process, a photoresist pattern is transferred into the desired biochemical pattern by means of spontaneous adsorption of biologically relevant species and photoresist lift-off. The surface between the interactive patches is subsequently rendered non-fouling through immobilization of a polycationic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft polymer. We demonstrate that surface density of biotin molecules inside adhesive islands can be tailored quantitatively and that cells grow selectively on cell-adhesive peptide patterns. MAPL is considered to be a valuable addition to the toolbox of soft-lithography techniques for life-science applications combining simplicity (no clean-room equipment needed), cost-effectiveness, reproducibility on the scale of whole wafer surfaces, and flexibility in terms of pattern geometry, chemistry, and substrate choice.