Liquid crystalline epoxy/polyaniline (LCE/PANI) composite nanowires have been fabricated using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by a temperature-gradient curing process. PANI nanorods with an average diameter of 30 nm have been synthesized by dispersion polymerization in order to employ them as a curing agent for LCE and as a reinforcement filler for the LCE/PANI composite nanowires. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that the LCE crosslinking reaction occurred inside the channels of the AAO membrane via the curing of LCE with PANI nanorods. The LCE/PANI composite nanowires exhibit an enhanced electrical conductivity and thermal stability, comparable with a LCE/PANI composite monolith. In addition, these polymer-composite nanowires also display the characteristics of a functionally gradient conducting material.