This work is supported by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Laboratory-Directed Research and Development Program (LDRD) and by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy. SNL is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors thank Bonnie McKenzie and Neil Simmons (SNL) for SEM support, and Dr. Jerrold Floro (SNL) and Professor Ping Lu (New Mexico Institute of Technology) for helpful discussions on crystallography.
Sequential Nucleation and Growth of Complex Nanostructured Films†
Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006
Copyright © 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Advanced Functional Materials
Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 335–344, February, 2006
How to Cite
Sounart, T. L., Liu, J., Voigt, J. A., Hsu, J. W. P., Spoerke, E. D., Tian, Z. and Jiang, Y. B. (2006), Sequential Nucleation and Growth of Complex Nanostructured Films. Adv. Funct. Mater., 16: 335–344. doi: 10.1002/adfm.200500468
- Issue published online: 27 JAN 2006
- Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 26 AUG 2005
- Manuscript Received: 14 JUL 2005
- Nanostructured materials;
- Zinc oxide
Nanostructured films with controlled architectures are desirable for many applications in optics, electronics, biology, medicine, and energy/chemical conversions. Low-temperature, aqueous chemical routes have been widely investigated for the synthesis of continuous films, and arrays of oriented nanorods and nanotubes. More recently, aqueous-phase routes have been used to produce films composed of more complex crystal structures. In this paper, we discuss recent progress in the synthesis of complex nanostructures through sequential nucleation and growth processes. We first review the use of multistage, seeded-growth methods to synthesize a wide range of nanostructures, including oriented nanowires, nanotubes, and nanoneedles, as well as laminated films, columns, and multilayer heterostructures. We then describe more recent work on the application of sequential nucleation and growth to the systematic assembly of large arrays of hierarchical, complex, oriented, and ordered crystal architectures. The multistage aqueous chemical route is shown to be applicable to several technologically important materials, and therefore may play a key role in advancing complex nanomaterials into applications.