This article focuses on ion transport through nanoporous systems with special emphasis on rectification phenomena. The effect of ion-current rectification is observed as asymmetric current–voltage (I–V) curves, with the current recorded for one voltage polarity higher than the current recorded for the same absolute value of voltage of opposite polarity. This diode-like I–V curve indicates that there is a preferential direction for ion flow. Experimental evidence that ion-current rectification is inherent to asymmetric, e.g., tapered, nanoporous systems with excess surface charge is provided and discussed. The fabrication and operation of asymmetric polymer nanopores, gold nanotubes, glass nanocapillaries, and silicon nanopores are presented. The possibility of tuning the direction and extent of rectification is discussed in detail. Theoretical models that have been developed to explain the ion-current rectification effect are also presented.