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High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ion-Coordinating Ruthenium Sensitizer for Efficient and Stable Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors

  • D. Kuang,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • C. Klein,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • S. Ito,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • J.-E. Moser,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • R. Humphry-Baker,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • S. M. Zakeeruddin,

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • M. Grätzel

    1. Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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  • We are grateful to P. Comte and R. Charvet for the nanocrystalline TiO2 paste fabrication, T. Koyanagi (CCIC, Japan) for providing the 400 nm sized TiO2 particles. The Swiss Science Foundation and Swiss Federal Office for Energy (OFEN) have supported this work.

Abstract

Ru(4,4-dicarboxylic acid-2,2′-bipyridine) (4,4′-bis(2-(4-(1,4,7,10-tetraoxyundecyl)phenyl)ethenyl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS)2, a new high molar extinction coefficient ion-coordinating ruthenium sensitizer was synthesized and characterized using 1H NMR, Fourier transform IR (FTIR), and UV/vis spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. Using this sensitizer in combination with a nonvolatile organic-solvent-based electrolyte, we obtain a photovoltaic efficiency of 8.4 % under standard global AM 1.5 sunlight. These devices exhibit excellent stability when subjected to continuous thermal stress at 80 °C or light soaking at 60 °C for 1000 h. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed that device stability is maintained by stabilizing the TiO2/dye/electrolyte and Pt/electrolyte interface during the aging process. The influence of Li+ present in the electrolyte on the device photovoltaic parameters was studied, and the FTIR spectral and photovoltage transient study showed that Li+ coordinates to the triethyleneoxide methylether side chains on the K60 sensitizer molecules.

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