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Synthesis and Characterization of Chromium-Doped Mesoporous Tungsten Oxide for Gas Sensing Applications

Authors

  • E. Rossinyol,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • A. Prim,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • E. Pellicer,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • J. Arbiol,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • F. Hernández-Ramírez,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • F. Peiró,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • A. Cornet,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • J. R. Morante,

    1. Electronics Materials and Engineering (EME)/CEMIC/CeRMAE/IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)
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  • L. A. Solovyov,

    1. Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, K. Marx av. 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia)
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  • B. Tian,

    1. Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (P.R. China)
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  • T. Bo,

    1. Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (P.R. China)
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  • D. Zhao

    1. Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (P.R. China)
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  • This work was partially supported by E.U. NANOS4 project and by MAT 2004-06859-CO2-01 project of the Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT). EME is with CeRMAE, center on Advanced Materials for Energy of the Generalitat de Catalunya. D.Z. thanks NSF of China and Shanghai Science & Technology Committee (03527001) for the financial support.

Abstract

SBA-15 (2D hexagonal structure) and KIT-6 (3D cubic structure) silica materials are used as templates for the synthesis of two different crystalline mesoporous WO3 replicas usable as NO2 gas sensors. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal that single-crystal hexagonal rings set up the atomic morphology of the WO3 KIT-6 replica, whereas the SBA-15 replica is composed of randomly oriented nanoparticles. A model capable of explaining the KIT-6 replica mesostructure is described. A small amount of chromium is added to the WO3 matrix in order to enhance sensor response. It is demonstrated that chromium does not form clusters, but well-distributed centers. Pure WO3 KIT-6 replica displays a higher response rate as well as a lower response time to NO2 gas than the SBA-15 replica. This behavior is explained by taking into account that the KIT-6 replica has a higher surface area as demonstrated by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analyses and its mesostructure is fully maintained after the screen-printing step involved in sensors preparation. The presence of chromium in the material results in a shorter response time and improved sensor response to the lowest NO2 concentrations tested. Electrical differences related to mesostructure are reduced as a result of additive introduction.

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