• Lithography, interference;
  • Lithography, three-dimensional;
  • Microfabrication;
  • Nanostructured materials;
  • Photonic crystals


Interference lithography (IL) holds the promise of fabricating large-area, defect-free 3D structures on the submicrometer scale both rapidly and cheaply. A stationary spatial variation of intensity is created by the interference of two or more beams of light. The pattern that emerges out of the intensity distribution is transferred to a light sensitive medium, such as a photoresist, and after development yields a 3D bicontinuous photoresist/air structure. Importantly, by a proper choice of beam parameters one can control the geometrical elements and volume fraction of the structures. This article provides an overview of the fabrication of 3D structures via IL (e.g., the formation of interference patterns, their dependence on beam parameters and several requirements for the photoresist) and highlights some of our recent efforts in the applications of these 3D structures in photonic crystals, phononic crystals and as microframes, and for the synthesis of highly non spherical polymer particles. Our discussion concludes with perspectives on the future directions in which this technique could be pursued.